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The Egyptians used papyrus to make marketing messages and posters. The advertising and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. rock wall paint or commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient form of advertising that is present today in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. The tradition of mural India dating rock paintings dating from 4000 BC. History [4] we said that the outdoor advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.

As cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general public could not read the signs now say shoemaker, miller, blacksmith, tailor or uses an image associated with his job as a beginning, a dress, a hat, a watch, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables are sold in the village square in the back cars and cars and their owners use the Scamp (preachers) to announce their comings and goings in the comfort of its customers.

As education became an apparent need and reading as well as printing, advertising point expanded to include leaflets. The century 17 ads began appearing in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in printing, and drugs that are increasingly sought after ravaging disease Europe. However, false advertising and called "healers" advertisements became a problem, which marked the beginning of regulation of advertising content.

As the economy expanded during the 19th century, along with increased advertising. United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of advertising through the mail.

In June 1836, the daily The French press, was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing you to lower prices and wider public to increase profitability and the formula has been copied shortly by all titles. Around 1840, Volney Palmer established a precedent for advertising agencies Boston. [5] Meanwhile, in France, Charles-Louis Havas agency expanded its news services, Havas advertising include brokerage, which is the first group French to organize. Initially, agencies were brokers of advertising space in newspapers. NW Ayer & Son was the first Full-service agency to assume responsibility for the content of advertising. NW Ayer opened in 1869 and is located in Philadelphia [5].

An advertisement 1895 for a product of the weight gain.

At the turn of the century, there were few career opportunities for women in business, however, Advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of your home purchase, advertisers and agencies have recognized the value of a view of women during the creative process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – a produces soap. Despite dominating today's standards, the ad shows a couple with the message "The skin you love to play" [6].

In the 1920s, radio stations have been established first by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers offer programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. Over time, many non-profit organizations and to create their own radio stations, and include. schools, clubs and civic groups [7] When the practice of mentoring programs became popular, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single company in exchange for a brief mention of the name of the company at the beginning and end of shows sponsored. However, owners the radio station soon realized they could make more money by selling sponsorship rights in the allocation of time for small businesses several issues of its radio station, instead of selling sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.

A print advertisement for the issue of the Encyclopedia Britannica 1913

This practice was brought to television in late 1940 and early 1950. A fierce battle took place between those seeking to sell the radio and people argued that spectrum should be considered as part of the House of Commons – to be used only for non-commercial use and for the public good. The UK model of public funding for BBC, originally a private company, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, fans like Graham Spry also managed to convince the federal government to adopt a public funding model, the creation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, the United States, the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which established the Commission Federal Communications. [7] To placate the socialists, the U.S. Congress required commercial broadcasters to operate in "the interest the public convenience and necessity. "[8] The public broadcaster is currently in the United States because of the 1967 law on public broadcasting that led to the Public Broadcasting and National Public Radio.

In the 1950s, the DuMont Television Network launched the modern trend of the sale of advertising time to several sponsors. Previously, DuMont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. He eventually became the industry standard for commercial television in the United States. However, it remained common practice for a single sponsor shows, such as U.S. Steel Hour. In some cases, the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the program – Up to and including an advertising agency who actually wrote the program. Single sponsor model is much less common today, A notable exception is the Hallmark Hall of Fame.

advertising has seen 1960's become a modern approach in which creativity has been allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to the eyes of consumers. The Volkswagen ad campaign with headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which is used to describe the appearance of the car)-ushered in an era of advertising Modern by promoting a "position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a clear idea in reader or viewer's mind. This period of American advertising is called Creative Revolution and its archetype was William Bernbach who helped to create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Some of the more creative and long-time America was in this period.

In late 1980 and early 1990 saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Pioneer of the music video, MTV launches a new type of advertising: consumer tunes in advertising, rather than a byproduct or afterthought. As cable the satellite has become more and more, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, ShopTV and Canada.

Marketing via the Internet opens new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the Internet bubble 1990s. All companies operating in advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century a number of websites including search engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant ads discrete to help rather than overwhelm users. This led to a large number of similar efforts and an upward trend in advertising interactively.

The proportion of advertising expenditure to GDP ratio has hardly changed major changes in the media. For example, United States In 1925, the media were the main advertising newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising expenses as a percentage GDP was about 2.9 percent. In 1998, television and radio had become the traditional media advertising. However, spending advertising as a percentage of GDP was slightly lower at about 2.4 percent. [9]

A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing, which involve unusual approaches such as meetings stages in public places, gifts such as cars which are covered with brand messages and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message.Guerrilla advertising is increasingly popular with many companies. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, pushing consumers to buy the product or idea. This reflects a growing trend Interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages and several innovative use of services social networking like MySpace.

[Edit] PSAs

The same advertising techniques to promote products and business services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public on non-trade issues such as HIV / AIDS, political ideology, energy conservation and deforestation.

Advertising as a noncommercial, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivate a broad audience. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest – is too powerful a tool for use solely for commercial purposes "Attributed to Howard Gossage -. by David Ogilvy.

PSAs, advertising noncommercial the public service advertising, cause marketing and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated marketing communications and advertising (most often associated with commercial enterprises) on behalf of non-commercial issues of interest and public initiatives.

United States, the licensing of radio and television by the FCC is contingent on a certain station amount of public service announcements. To meet these requirements, many broadcast stations air American most of his posts public interest that require night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers watching, leaving more time intervals by day and the first commercially available for high-paying advertisers.

public service announcements peaked during World Wars I and II under the direction of several governments.

[Edit] Types of advertising

Paying people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms advertising, as with this man directional pictured above on a bus with an advertisement for GAP in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular means for advertisers. A season of DBAG Class 101 with UNICEF ads at Ingolstadt train

Virtually any environment can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture, brochures and rack cards, radio spots, film and television, web banners, mobile telephone screens, carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, billboards Rights, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached or aircraft parts ("Logojets"), in-flight announcements on the shelves at the rear or storage compartments, taxi doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands, disposable diapers, the stalls of the bathroom door, stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising) the opening section of transmission of audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place a "Identified" sponsor pays to deliver his message through a medium is advertising.

[Edit] TV

Main products: advertising on television and music in Advertising

The TV commercial is generally considered the format of the advertising more effective mass market, as evidenced by the high cost of network television airtime charges TV advertising during demonstrations popular. The annual football Super Bowl in the United States is known as the festival of the largest advertising on television. The average cost of a TV spot thirty-second in this game alone has reached $ 3 million (2009).

Most commercial television have song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product.

Virtual advertising may be inserted into regular television programming by computer graphics. Typically inserted into otherwise backdrops white [10] or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to hearing distance communication. [11] More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background [12] that do not exist in real life. Virtual product placement is also possible. [13] [14]

[Edit] infomercials

Main article: Infomercial

An infomercial is a television commercial large-format, usually five minutes or more. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" and "commercial". The main objective of the activity is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and immediately purchase the product through the announced free phone number or website. Info-describe, display and often demonstrate products and their characteristics, and often have evidence to consumers and industry professionals.

[Edit] Radio Advertising

Radio advertising is a form of radio advertising in the media.

Radio advertisements are transmitted radio waves in the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or a network in exchange for advertisements aired. While radio has the obvious limitation of being limited to sounds, proponents of the advertising radio often cite this as an advantage.

[Edit] Press advertising

advertising in the press described as the print media as newspapers, magazines and trade newspapers. This covers everything from media to a wide readership, as a great national newspaper or magazine, media more targeted than the local newspapers and periodicals on specialized topics. A form of advertising in the classified advertising in print, which allows individuals or companies to purchase an ad, targeted to a very small share of advertising for a product or a service.

[Edit] advertising Online

Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the express purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads on search results pages of search engine, banner ads, ads in textual, rich media ad, advertising, social networks, online ads, advertising networks and marketing by e-mail, including e-mail spam.

[Edit] billboard

Billboards are large structures located in public places to show ads from pedestrians and motorists. Very often, are located on main roads with lots of motor vehicles and pedestrians passing, however, can be placed in anywhere, with thousands of spectators, such as public transport vehicles and in stations, shopping centers or office buildings, and stadiums.

[Edit] The mobile billboards

The red eye newspaper advertising for your target market at North Avenue Beach displays a sailboat on Lake Michigan.

movable panels are often installed in vehicles or fences digital displays. These can be in Only vehicles built to carry advertisements along the routes of pre-selected by customers, can also be vehicles specially equipped or cargo, in some cases, large posters scattered from airplanes. The billboards are lit, and some to be backlit, and others who use lights. Some displays static display, while changing others, for example, continuously or periodically rotating among a set of ads.

Mobile displays are used for different situations in metropolitan areas worldwide, including:

  • Advertising target
  • In one day, and long-term campaigns
  • Conventions
  • Sporting Events
  • Store openings and other promotional events
  • Major announcements of small Business
  • Other

[Edit] The in-store advertising

advertising in shops is advertising placed in a retail store. It involves placing a product in a store in conspicuous places, like the eye level at the end of aisles and counters near the cash register shows the deletion of a specific product promotion ads, and in places such as shopping carts and video screens in the store.

[Edit] Surreptitious advertising

Section Home: product placement

surreptitious advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a movie, the character principal can use an item or not a particular brand, like in the movie Minority Report where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written on top, or his watch engraved with the logo Bulgari. Another example of advertising in the movie I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "Classical" because the film is set in the distant future. I, Robot and Spaceballs It also shows car futuristic Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded which, because of the figure of many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement Omega Watches, Ford, Vaio, BMW and Aston Martin are featured in the last years of James Bond films, Casino Royale in particular. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer ", the main transport vehicle displays a large logo on the Dodge. Blade Runner includes front some of the most product placement Obviously, the movie stops to see a billboard for Coca-Cola.

[Edit] Celebrities

Main article: Brand Celebrity

This type of advertising focuses on using the power of celebrity, fame, money, popularity obtain recognition promote products and specific products or stores. Advertisers tend to advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or clothing brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as advertisements television or print advertising specific products or general.

The use of celebrities support of a brand can have its drawbacks, however. An error of a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a mark. For example, after the execution of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps contract with Kellogg's has been canceled, like Kellogg's does not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana.

[Edit] The media and advertising approaches

Increasingly, other media are overtaking many "traditional" media comme télévision, la radio et les journaux en raison d'un changement de consommation vers l'utilisation de l'Internet pour les nouvelles et la musique ainsi que devices such as recorders Digital Video Recorder (DVR) like TiVo.

Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. Advertising prices Web-based depends on the "relevance" web content and traffic around the site receives.

Digital communication is becoming a important means of communication, because of its ability to reach a larger audience for less money. Digital communications are also an opportunity only to see the purpose for which are affected by the media. Technological advances have also helped to control the message digital signature with great precision, allowing messages to the target of interest at any time and place that in turn become more receptive to advertising. Digital communication is successfully used in supermarkets. [15] Another successful use of digital signage is hospitality in places such as restaurants. [16] and businesses [17].

mailing address is another recent phenomenon. e-mail unsolicited bulk known as spam. Spam has been a problem for email users for many years.

Some companies have proposed to place messages or company logos on the side of booster rockets and the International Space Station. There is controversy about the effectiveness of subliminal advertising (see mind control), and the pervasiveness of mass messages (see propaganda).

Unpaid Advertising (Also "Advertising" called) can provide good exposure at minimal cost. Personal recommendations ("do to a friend," of " Sale "), spreading rumors, or perform the feat to tie the game with a common name (in the U.S.," Xerox " = "Photocopier", "Kleenex" = tissue, "Vaseline" = petroleum jelly, "Hoover" = vacuum cleaner, "Nintendo" (Often used by people exposed to many video games) = video games, and "Band-Aid" = adhesive bandage) – They may be regarded as the pinnacle of any advertising campaign. However, some companies oppose the use of its mark to mark an object. Assimilate brand with a common noun also risks turning that brand into a brand in generic form – making it a generic term which means that their legal protection as a trademark is lost.

As the mobile phone has become a new medium in 1998, when the first paid downloadable content is appeared on mobile phones Finland, was a matter of time until mobile advertising followed, also the first time in Finland in 2000. For 2007, the value of mobile advertising had reached 2.2 billion U.S. dollars and providers such as Admob delivered billions mobile ads.

the most advanced mobile ads include banner ads, coupons, multimedia messaging and picture messages video, advergames and various engagement marketing campaigns. A particular feature driving mobile ads is the 2D Barcode, which replaces the need to write web addresses, and uses the modern camera phones to get instant access to Web content. 83 per cent of Japanese phone users Mobile is already active users of 2D barcodes.

A new form of advertising that is growing rapidly is social network advertising. It is in online advertising with an emphasis on social networking sites. This is a relatively immature market, but has shown very promising and advertisers are able to take advantage of demographic information the user provided that the social networking site. Friendertising is a more precise term in advertising that people are able to target advertising directly to other network service.

Time time, The CW Television Network broadcasts short breaks called "Content Wraps," to announce a company's products during a break together commercial sector. The CW pioneered "content envelope" and some products featured were Herbal Essences, Crest, Guitar Hero II, CoverGirl, and recently Toyota.

Recently, it was a new concept of promotion, technology "ARvertising" advertising Augmented Reality.

[Edit] Criticism of Advertising

Although advertising can be regarded as necessary for economic growth, is not exempt payroll taxes. Unsolicited commercial emails and other forms of spam have become so frequent that have become a major nuisance to users of these services, Besides being a financial burden for ISPs. [18] Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces such as schools, some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. [19] In addition, advertisements often use psychological pressure (eg appeal to feelings of inadequacy) for the general public, which can be harmful.

[Edit] Hyper-commercialism and sweepstakes

The criticism of advertising is closely linked to media criticism and often interchangeable. You can refer to audio-visual aspects (eg, public spaces saturated and waves), environment (pollution, for example, large packagings, increased consumption) political aspects (eg, dependency media, freedom of expression, censorship), (expenses), ethical / moral / social issues (for example, that the influence subconscious, invasion of privacy, increased consumption and waste, target groups, some products honesty) and, of course, a mixture thereof. Some aspects can be subdivided and some may cover more than one category.

As Advertising has become increasingly prevalent in modern Western societies, it is also increasingly criticized. A person can barely move in the sphere Public or use half without advertising. Advertising occupies public space and increasingly invading the privacy of individuals, many of whom consider as a nuisance. "It is increasingly difficult to escape the publicity and the media. … The public space is increasingly at a poster Giant products of all kinds. The aesthetic and political consequences can not yet foresee. [20] Hanno Rauterberg in the German newspaper "Die Zeit requests to announce a new type of dictatorship that we can not escape. [21]

Ad creep: "There are ads in the schools, airport lounges, doctors, halls theaters, hospitals, gas stations, elevators, convenience stores, the Internet, on fruit, on ATM machines in garbage cans and countless other places. There are ads on the sandy beach and bathroom walls. [22] "One of the ironies Advertising in our time is that with increasing commercialization, which makes it much harder for a single advertiser to succeed therefore, pushing the poster. Even the best efforts "[23] In a decade in radio advertising has increased to about 18 minutes or 19 per hour on television in prime time has been the norm until 1982 more than 9.5 minutes of advertising per hour, today is between 14 and 17 minutes. With the introduction of the shorter 15-second spot the total number of listings has increased even more dramatically. Ads placed not only in breaks but also for example emissions during the baseball game itself. They flood the Internet, a market growing by leaps and bounds.

other markets growth are entertainment programs and movies where the''product placement''in has become a common practice and virtual advertising'','' For products placed on retroactively re-run shows. fencing product advertising is almost embedded in the Major League Baseball and emissions the same way, the virtual street banners or logos on a proposed entrance pavilion or on sidewalks, for example, when the arrival of celebrities Grammy Awards 2001. Advertising before the film projection in theaters as "short" luxury products by companies like Microsoft and DaimlerChrysler. "The biggest advertising agencies began to work hard to co-produce programs undertaken in collaboration with the media mass [24], the creation of entertainment as infomercials.

Opponents correspond to the increasing amount of advertising in a "vague" and restrict "reservoir" of flooding. Lasn, one of the harshest critics of advertising on the scene International, believes that advertising, the most common mental toxic pollutants. partir du moment où votre réveil sonne matin aux petites heures de la télévision microjolts late night shopping in pollution flooding his brain at a speed of about 3,000 commercial messages per day. Each day, a twelve billion ads, 3 million radio commercials and more than 200,000 television commercials are dumped into the collective "North American unconscious. [25] During his life the average American watches three years of advertising on television [26].

More recent information sessions are video games that incorporate content in their products, special sales channels patients in hospitals and sports personalities temporary tattoos. Unrecognizable as a method of advertising is guerrilla marketing llamada''''de spread "word of mouth" of a new product in the target. American cities are becoming no money behind police cars to carry advertising [27]. One trend in particular Germany, the companies buying the names of sports stadiums. Football Volkspark Hamburg became the first AOL Arena HSH Nordbank Arena. The Neckarstadion Stuttgart become the Mercedes-Benz Arena, Dortmund Westfalenstadion is now the Signal Iduna Park. The former Skydome in Toronto was renamed the Rogers Centre. Other Recent developments are, for example, that all underground stations in Berlin rooms have been redesigned and produced only rented to a company. Düsseldorf same "multi-sensory adventure transit stops equipped with loudspeakers and systems that spread the smell of detergent. Swatch uses spotlights to project messages the television tower and the Victory Column in Berlin, who was fined because it was unauthorized. The illegality was part of the promotion plan and added [21].

It is normal for knowledge management company that advertising is a mainstay, if not "the" pillar of the economy led to a free capitalist growth. "Advertising is part of the bone marrow of corporate capitalism. "[28]" Contemporary capitalism could not function and global production networks could not exist as they do without advertising. [1]

For scientists and the media economist Manfred Knoche, University of Salzburg, Austria, advertising is not simply a "necessary evil" but a "elixir of life" necessary for the activity of media communication, economy and capitalism as a whole. Advertising and mass media interest in the creation of economic ideology. Knoche describe advertising products and brands as "arms producer in the competition for business customers and advertising, for example, industry automobile as a means to represent their collective interests against other groups, such as railway companies. In his editorials and programs of opinion in the media, promoting consumption in general, to provide a "free service to producers and sponsoring a" means Payment widely used "in advertising [29]. Christopher Lasch argued that advertising leads to an overall increase of consumption in society, "Advertising does not serve as the advertising of products to promote consumption as a lifestyle." [30]

[Edit] Publicity and constitutional rights

Advertising is about freedom guaranteed by the Constitution of opinion and expression. [31] Therefore, to criticize an advertisement or any attempt to restrict or prohibit advertising is almost always considered an attack on fundamental rights [Citation required] (First Amendment to the U.S.) and meets the combined and concentrated force of society and especially the world of advertising. "In now or in the near future, a number of cases and make their way through the judicial system that seeks to prohibit any governmental regulation … commercial speech (eg, advertising or labeling of food) on the basis that such regulation would be contrary to citizens and businesses First Amendment rights to freedom of expression or freedom of the press. [32] An example of this debate is the advertising of snuff or alcohol, but also direct mail or flyers (Mailboxes covered), advertising on the phone, online and advertising children. Various legal restrictions on spam, mobile advertising Mobile, against children, snuff, alcohol has been established by U.S., EU and other countries. Not only is the community business is reluctant to restrictions on advertising. Advertising as means of free expression has been firmly established in society [citation needed West]. McChesney argues that the government deserves constant vigilance against these standards, but it is certainly not the only anti-democratic force in our society. … corporations and the wealthy enjoy as powerful as that enjoyed by nobles and royalty of feudal times "and" markets are not without value or neutral, not only tend to work on behalf of people with more money, but also by their nature focus on profit above all …. Therefore, the debate today is whether the labeling or advertising of foods, or contributions to speech campaign … if the right to be protected by the First Amendment can not be used by a fraction of all citizens, and exercise of these rights gives too much power and undermines the political balance capacity of citizens to exercise the same rights and / or constitutional rights, then it is not necessarily legitimate protected by the First Amendment. "Furthermore," being able to participate freely in the press are able to determine that speaks to the great mass of citizens who can not. "[33] Critics argue, in turn, advertising invades privacy, a constitutional right. Because on the one hand, advertising invades privacy physically, on the other hand, is used more and more important, on the basis of information with the personal data collected without the knowledge or consent of consumers or targeted groups.

Georg Franck Vienna University of Technology, Advertising is part of what he calls "mental capital" [34] [35], a term (mental), which has been used by groups Environment-related mental, such as Adbusters. Frank combines the economy of attention "to the culture of narcissm Christopher Lasch Mental capitalism [36] In his essay "Advertising on the edge of the Apocalypse," Sut Jhally writing. "20 century advertising is the most powerful and sustained propaganda in human history and its cumulative cultural, unless quickly checked, will be responsible for the destruction of the world as we know [37].

[Edit] care costs and hidden costs

Advertising has become an enterprise of one billion dollars in many of them depend. In 2006 391 billion dollars was spent worldwide on advertising. In Germany, for example, industry Advertising represents 1.5% of gross national income figures for other developed countries are similar. [citation needed] Therefore, advertising and growth are directly linked and causation. As an economy based on growth can be blamed for living human dangerous (affluence) Advertising must be considered that compared to its negative impact, because their main purpose is to increase consumption. "The industry is accused of being one of the engines in a complex economic system of mass production, which promotes consumption. [38]

Attention and care has become a new product for a developed market. "The amount of attention which is absorbed by the media and redistributed in the competition for ratings and the beach is not the same amount of attention, which is available in society. The total amount flowing into society is composed of care exchanged between the people themselves and care information to the media. Only the latter is homogenized by the quantitative measurement and that it assumes the character of an anonymous money. "[34] [35] Franck, any presentation surface that can guarantee a level of care that works Magnet attention, for example, the media are in fact intended for information and entertainment, culture and the arts, public space, etc. This attraction is sold advertising industry. The German Association of Advertising said that in 2007 30780000000 euros were spent on advertising in Germany [39], 26% in newspapers, television 21%, 15% mail and 15% in magazines. In 2002, there were 360,000 people employed in the advertising industry. Turnover of Internet advertising has doubled to nearly € 1000000000 2006 to 2007, giving the highest growth rates.

Spiegel Online has reported that in the United States in 2008 for the first time more money was spent on Internet advertising (105.3 million U.S.) on TV (98.5 million). The largest expenditure in 2008 is still in version print ($ 147 million). [40] The same year, Welt Online has reported that the U.S. pharmaceutical industry spent almost twice the amount advertising (57.7 million) than it did in the research (31.5 million). However, Marc-Andre Gagnon und Joel Lexchin, York University, Toronto, estimates that the actual expenditures for advertising are even greater, because all entries are recorded by the research institutions. [41] Excluding indirect advertising campaigns, such as sales, rebates and discounts. Few consumers are aware that they are the ones who pay for every penny spent on public relations, advertising, sales, packaging, etc., as they are usually included in the calculations.

[Edit] Influence and packing

McDonald's advertising in the Via di Propaganda, Rome, Italy

The element largest advertising is not information, but more or less the idea that the use of associations, emotions (appeal to emotion) and inactive units in the sub-consciousness of people, like sex, herd instinct, desire, like happiness, health, fitness, appearance, self-esteem, reputation, membership, social status identity, adventure, entertainment, rewards, fears (call to fear), the disease, weakness, loneliness, need, uncertainty, security or prejudice, heard the views and amenities. "Every human needs, relationships, and fears – the depths of the human psyche – Become an easy way to expand the universe products covered by the force of modern marketing. With the rise of modern marketing, commercialism – The translation of human relations in trade relations -. Despite a phenomenon intrinsic to capitalism, has increased exponentially, "Marketing with a cause" [42] in which the advertisers link between their products at a good social cause has skyrocketed over the last decade.

operates the advertising model celebrity or popular characters and makes deliberate use of humor as well as partnerships with color, melodies, names of certain terms. In total, these are factors how they perceive themselves and self-confidence. In his description of "capitalism Franck mental," he said, "the promise of consumption make someone irresistible is the ideal form of objects and symbols in subjective experience of a person. Obviously, in a society in which the income of the attention going forward, the consumer is attracted by the self-esteem. Consequently, consumption becomes "work" in the attraction of a person. From the subjective point of view, this "work" field opens unexpected dimensions of advertising. Advertisement assumes the role of an adviser to attract life. (…) The cult around his own attraction is, as Christopher Lasch describes as a "culture of narcissism." [35] [36]

For the critics of advertising is another serious problem is that "Long term separation between advertising and editorial / Creative side of media is rapidly falling apart "and advertising is increasingly difficult to distinguish new information and entertainment. the boundaries between advertising and programming are becoming blurred. According to media companies all commercial involvement was not influence on the actual content of the media, but as McChesney says, "this statement fails the test, even the most basic laugh is so absurd. "[43]

Advertising is based "largely on psychological theories about how to create topics, advertising and marketing can take a tint more clearly psychological (Miller and Rose, 1997, quoted in savings 1999, p. 67). Increasingly, emphasis in advertising has been to provide information "facts" to symbolic connotations of commodities, because the fundamental premise the culture of advertising is that the purpose of sale equipment is never sufficient. Even products that provides for daily needs of life daily must be imbued with symbolic qualities and culturally defined by the "magic system (Williams 1980) of advertising. In this way and changing the context in which ads appear, things "you can do in the sense of" something "(McFall, 2002, p. 162) and the "same" things can be equipped with different meanings to different people and groups of people, which offers a view of the production mass individualism. [1]

Before the advertisement is made, the market research institutions need to understand and describe the target group exactly to plan and implement the advertising campaign and get the best possible results. A range of science dealing directly advertising and marketing, or used to enhance its effects. Focus groups, psychologists and cultural anthropologists son'''''de rigorous market research "[44]. Large amounts of data on individuals and their buying habits are collected, stored, aggregated and analyzed using credit cards, bonds, lotteries and Internet surveys. With increasing accuracy this paints a picture of the behavior, desires and weaknesses of certain sectors of a population in which an ad can be used more selectively and effective. The efficiency is improved by advertising looking for publicity. Universities, of course, with corporate support and cooperation with other disciplines (previous article), particularly psychiatry, anthropology, neurology and behavioral sciences, are constantly research methods ever more refined and sophisticated, subtle and tricky to make advertising more effective. "Neuromarketing is a controversial area the new marketing which uses medical technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) – no cure, but to sell products. Marketing and advertising have long used the ideas and research methods of psychology to sell, of course. But today, these practices are reaching epidemic levels, and with the complicity of the psychological profession that exceeds that of the past. The result is an avalanche of publicity huge marketing includes, without doubt, the largest project ever undertaken individual psychological. However, this large enterprise is largely ignored by the American Psychological Association. [45] Robert McChesney calls "the greatest concerted effort to psychological manipulation of human history. [46]

[Edit] The dependence of media and corporate censorship

Almost all media is advertising in the media and many of these are only the media and advertising, with the exception of public service broadcasting is privately owned. Its revenues are mainly generated through advertising, in the case of newspapers and magazines from 50 to 80%. public service broadcasting in certain countries may also depend in large party advertising as a source of income (up to 40%) [47]. According to critics of all media that spreads your ads can be independent and the proportion of advertising, the more addictive. This dependence has "different implications for the nature of media content in the press …. business, the media often refer to exactly the way they present in their moments of frankness. As a branch of industry advertising [48]

In addition, private media are increasingly the subject of mergers and concentration of ownership of situations often tangle and matt. This trend, Henry A. Giroux calls a current "threat to the democratic culture" [49] itself should be sufficient for all alarms sound in a democracy. Five or six advertising agencies that dominate the industry U.S. $ 400 billion worldwide.

The journalists long been under pressure to shape the story for advertisers and owners of costume …. the vast majority of those responsible for television are "cooperation" of their new departments in the development of new help for the "development of non-traditional revenue." [50] the negative statement and undesirable to be avoided or influential when advertisers threatened to cancel orders or just when there is a danger of such cancellation. dependence on the media and as a threat becomes very real when one or very few dominant large advertisers. The influence Advertisers not only in respect of news and information, specific products or services, but extends to articles or programs are not directly related to them. In order to secure advertising revenue in media communication to create an environment of advertising the best possible . Another problem seen by critics of censorship, is the refusal of the media to accept ads that are not of interest. A notable example is the negation of television stations to run ads Adbusters. Groups try to place the ads and declined through networks [51].

This is especially the notes that will decide the program on the radio and television. "His business is to absorb much attention as possible. Display speed measures the attention of media offices for the information provided. Service is sold this attraction at the advertising firm "[35] and the odds of determining the price that may be needed for advertising.

"On the advertisers to determine the content of the sample has been a part of everyday life in the United States since 1933. Procter & Gamble (P & G) …. provides a radio station's historic business decisions (now known as "barter"): the company could produce a program itself "Free" and save the radio station as high costs for content production. Therefore, the company wants its ads to develop and, of course, put their products on the show. Therefore, Ma Perkins series was created, which P & G Oxydol cleverly used to promote the leading brand in detergent soap for years and was born … [52]

While critics worry essentially the subtle influence economy in the media, there are examples of roma exercise any influence. The American company Chrysler before its merger with Daimler-Benz had its agency, Pentacom, send a letter to numerous magazines, demanding to submit a summary of all issues before the next edition is published "to avoid potential conflicts. "Most of all Chrysler wanted to know if there would be no articles containing" sexual, political or social or could be perceived as provocative or offensive. "Pentacom Executive David Martin said:" Our reasoning is that all those looking for a product to 22,000 $ You want surrounded by positive things There is nothing positive about an article. child pornography. [52] In another example, " USA Network held to a higher level, outside of the meeting records "with advertisers in 2000 to say that the array of content they wanted programming for U.S. advertising. [53] The television programs are created to meet the needs of advertising, for example, that the division into the appropriate sections. His drama is generally designed or leave shall be suspended a question unanswered to keep the viewer attached.

The system of film, while outside the direct influence of the marketing system more comprehensive, fully integrated into strategies licensing tie-ins and product placement. The primary function of many Hollywood films today is to help sell the vast collection of products. [54] The press was called in 2002 James Bond film "Die Another Day" has 24 major promotional partners in an "ad-venture" and said James Bond, "has been" authorized to sell "this has become common practice to place products in movies," has obvious implications for the types of films and attract product placement kind of films will be more likely to be made "[55].

Advertising and Information are increasingly difficult to distinguish from each other. "The borders between advertising and the media …. They become more diffuse and more in August …. I Fischer, president of Axel Springer editorial as an association "established between the media and advertising companies reviews" see nothing but the infiltration of journalism and freedom. "According to RTL-executive Helmut Thoma" private channels and not one can not serve any what mission, but only the target company which is "the acceptance by the advertising market and the viewer. Prioritization in order actually says everything about the "design programs on television." [52] Patrick Le Lay, former CEO of TF1, a chain of private French television, with a market share of 25 to 35% said: "There are several ways of talking about television, but the point of view, let us be realistic. Basically, the work of TF1, for example, Coca Cola to help sell your product. (…) For an advertisement to be perceived the viewer's brain must be available to us. The work of our programs is to make available, is to entertain, relax and be ready between two messages. Available time is the human brain that we sell to Coca-Cola. [56]

Because of these dependencies for a global debate and fundamental of advertising and its influence on information and freedom of expression is difficult to obtain, at least through media channels traditional, because if not, was the branch on which they sit. "The idea that the base business media, journalism and communication could have worrying consequences for democracy is outside the scope of legitimate debate "so that capitalism is out of bounds as a topic of legitimate debate in American political culture "[57].

One of the first critics of the basic structure of American journalism was Upton Sinclair's novel The balance sheet of brass that highlights the influence of owners, advertisers, public relations, and economic interests media. In his book "Our Master's Voice – Advertising" social ecologist James Rorty (1890-1973) wrote: "The mouth of the gargoyle is a speaker, guided by the interests of an industry with two million, and back to the vested interests of business as a whole industry, finance. It is never silent, it drowns all other voices, and not suffer reproach, because it is the voice of America? That request and, to some extent is a just demand …"[ 58]

We learned to live, the fear of being proud, as beautiful, how to be loved, how envy, how to succeed .. No wonder the American population tends increasingly to speak, think and feel in terms of Jabberwocky? The stimuli Art, science, religion, are gradually expelled to the periphery of American life to become marginal values, cultivated by marginal people in marginal time? [59]

[Edit] The commercialization of culture and sport

Performances, exhibitions, shows, concerts, conventions and events can hardly take place without sponsorship. The art of growing need and growing purchasing the service of the attraction. Artists are ranked and paid according to the value of his art for commercial purposes. Companies to promote well-known artists, to obtain exclusive rights in the global advertising campaigns. Broadway shows, as outstanding commercial support "La Boheme" as a [60] whole.

Advertising itself is widely regarded as a contribution to culture. Advertising is an integrated fashion. In many parts company logo or design of clothing is only an important part of it. Is not this little space away the consumer economy, where culture and art can be developed independently and other values may be expressed. A final area major universities, is under strong pressure to open businesses and their interests [61].

Airbags in the front panel of a sports stadium

Competitive sports have become unthinkable without the sponsorship and there is a mutual dependency. The increase in advertising revenue is possible with a comparable number of viewers or readers. On the other hand, the poor performance of a team or an athlete on the results of advertising revenues less. Huther and Hans-Jürgen Jörg Stiehl speak of "Sports / Media Complex is a complex mixture of media, agencies, managers, promoters, sports, advertising, interest, etc. partly common and partly contradictory, but in any case with common economic interests. The media are expected to center stage because it can provide the other parties involved in a scarce resource, namely, (potential) public attention. In sport, "The media are able to generate huge sales in both circulation and advertising. [62]

"Sports sponsorship is recognized by industry snuff good publicity. A newspaper industry snuff in 1994 described the Formula One car as' Space advertising the most powerful in the world. …. In a cohort study conducted in 22 secondary schools in England in 1994 and 1995 children whose favorite sport is television Race was a risk of 12.8% to become regular smokers against 7.0% of children who do not follow racing. [63]

This is not selling tickets, but transmission rights, sponsorship and merchandising, in turn, constitute the major portion of the proceeds of the sports association and club sports with the IOC (International Olympic Committee) to the head. The influence of the media made many changes in sports, including income "Fashionable sports in the Olympics again, changing the distance competition, changes in rules, the animation of the spectators, facilities sports changes, the cult of sporting heroes decompose rapidly in advertising and entertainment to its fair value media [64] and last but not least, the name and renaming stadiums after companies. "In the sport setting the logic of the media can contribute to erosion values such as equality of opportunity or fairness, excessive demand on athletes by public pressure and operating several or deception (doping, manipulation of results …). It is in the interest of media and sport to fight against this danger, because the media sports communication can only work as long as there is a sport [64].

[Edit] Occupation and commercialization of public space

All visually perceptible rise has great potential for advertising. Especially in urban areas, with its structures, but also for landscapes through rates are growing media for advertising. Signs, posters, billboards, banners have become decisive factors in the urban landscape and the number continues to increase. "Outdoor advertising has become unavoidable. Traditional billboards and bus shelters have been cleared the way for improved methods prevalent, such as the vehicles involved, the sides of buildings, electronic signs, kiosks, taxis, billboards, the sides of buses, and more. Digital technologies are used in buildings for urban sample of the wall "sports. In urban areas commercial content is placed before our eyes and our consciousness every moment we are in the public space. The German press "Zeit" called a new form of dictatorship you can not escape. "[21] Over time, this domination of the surrounding area has become" natural "state. With long-term commercial saturation, it has become understood by the public that advertising has the right to possess, occupy and control every inch space available. Normalization constant of invasive advertising dulls the public's perception of their environment, strengthening of a general attitude powerless to creativity and change, so that a cycle develops enabling advertisers to more slowly and regularly saturation Advertise With little public outcry or not. [65]

Orientation mass advertising perspective to change the role of public spaces which are used by brands. urban sites become marks. The greatest pressure is exerted on the reputation and very popular public spaces are also important for the identity of a city (eg, Piccadilly Circus, Times Square, Alexanderplatz). Urban spaces are public goods and as such are subject the "aesthetics of the environment", mainly through building regulations, heritage protection and landscape protection. "It is for this reason that these spaces are being privatized. They are full of posters and banners, was remodeled in the media for advertising. "[34] [35]

[Edit] Socio-cultural: discrimination sexism and stereotypes

"Advertising has a" Depending on the scheduling, which is the capacity, with large sums of money to invest consumption as a single point on the agenda the day. In the battle for a share of public education, which is equivalent to no treatment (ignorance) of everything that is not commercial and what is not advertised to. Advertising should reflect the norms of society and give a clear target market. Free trade areas and advertising service of the Muses and relaxation remain unmet. [neutrality disputed] With the increase of the strength of advertising is Homemade in the private sector so that the voice level of trade becomes the dominant form of expression in society. [66] reviews advertisement See advertising as a leading light in our culture. Sut Jhally and James Twitchell go beyond the examination of advertising as a religion and that advertising even replace religion as a key institution [67].

"The advertising company (or corporate media) is the largest project ever undertaken by the psychological race of man. But so far, their impact on us remains unknown and largely ignored. When I think about media influences over decades, I think that brainwashing experiments conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron in a psychiatric hospital in Montreal at the end of 1950 (See MKULTRA). The idea of the CIA-sponsored "deprogramming" experience was to provide the subject conscious, unconscious or semi-conscious, helmet, and flooding their brains with thousands of repetitive "drive" messages change their behavior over time …. Advertising aims to the same. [25]

Advertising is particularly aimed at young children and the narrowing of young consumers. [49] Sut Jhally is not "surprising that something as central as it is dedicated to become a presence in social life. Indeed, commercial interests to maximize the use of the immense accumulation of commodities have colonized space to grow in our culture. For example, almost all system media (television and newspapers) was developed as a distribution to sellers of its principal function is to produce for retail advertisers. From the stage at once issue of advertising and editorial that acts as a support for her, to celebrate the company consumption. The system of film, while outside the direct influence of the entire marketing system is totally integrated into strategies licensing tie-ins and product placement. The first of many Hollywood films today is to help sell the vast collection of products. As public funds are drained in commercial art galleries Cultural, museums and symphonies offer corporate sponsorship. [54] In the same way out is the system of education and advertising is increasingly going into schools and universities. Cities like New York, sponsors accepting public playgrounds. "Even the Pope has sold … four-day visit of Pope Mexico in 1999 … was sponsored by Frito-Lay and Pepsi. [68] The industry is accused of being one of the engines in a complex economic system of production that promotes mass consumption. As the effects of the social concerns, regardless of whether the fuel consumption of advertising, but values, attitudes and assignments that it means to spread. Advertising is accused of misuse of language and popular culture media, protests and even critical and subversive do not hesitate to break taboos and scandal (eg, Benetton). This in turn triggers an action against him in 2001 llamado''Jamming Lasn la''Jammers Jam. Anything goes. "This is a central issue in the social sciences what people can do to make it through the appropriate design of the situation and of great practical importance. For example, a large number of experiments in experimental psychology can be assumed that people can do whatever they are capable, when provided as the Company may be created. [69]

Advertising often uses stereotypical gender roles men and women are reinforced existing stereotypes and has been criticized as being "inadvertently or intentionally promote sexism, racism and ageism … At least, advertising often reinforces stereotypes based on the recognition of "types" of stories in a single image or 30 images per second. [38] Activities are represented as typically masculine or feminine (stereotypes). Also, people are reduced their sexuality or related to products and gender-specific qualities are exaggerated. Men sexualized female bodies, but also more increasingly used as substitutes. In advertising, it's usually a woman who is represented as

  • Officials of men and children that respond to requests and complaints of their relatives with a bad conscience and the promise of immediate improvements (washing, food)
  • emotional or sexual toys for the affirmation of men
  • a totally clueless to be (almost always men) who can manage a transaction of child-resistant
  • Experts on women, but the stereotypes of fields of fashion, cosmetics, foods or medicines again
  • as ultrathin, thin and very thin.
  • ground to work for others, for example, coffee, while a journalist interview with a politician [70]

Most advertising contracts with the promotion of products belonging to the 'ideal body image. " This is mainly directed against women, and in the past, this type of advertising has been directed almost exclusively to women. Women in advertising in general portrayed as beautiful women who are healthy. This, however, is not for the average woman. Therefore, give a negative message of body image of the average woman. Because of the media, girls and women who are overweight, and otherwise "normal" feels almost obligated to take care of themselves and keep fit. They are under pressure to maintain an acceptable body weight and health care. The consequences for this are low self-esteem, eating disorders, self harm and operations of the beautiful women who simply do not dare to eat well or have the motivation to go to the gym. The European Parliament adopted a resolution in 2008 that advertising must not be discriminatory and degrading treatment. This shows that politicians are increasingly concerned about the negative publicity. However, the benefits of promoting health and fitness general is often overlooked. Men are also negatively portrayed as incompetent and the butt of all jokes in advertising.

[Edit] children and adolescents as a target group

children's market, where the resistance is lower advertising is the "pioneer ad creep." [71] "Children are among the most sophisticated observers of advertising. They can sing the jingles and logos identifying, and often have strong feelings about products. What is not generally accepted, however, are the underlying issues of how advertising works. The media are used not only to sell products, but also the ideas: how to behave, what rules are important, and we must respect this value. [72] of youth is increasingly reduced to the role of a consumer. Not only the manufacturers of toys, candy, ice cream, breakfast foods and sporting goods prefer to run their promotion children and adolescents. For example, an advertisement for a breakfast cereal in a canal aimed at adults have music that is a sweet ballad, just a channel for children, the same ad using a catchy jingle rock in the same way

play guitar now advertisements on qvc