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Main article: History of Madagascar
As part of eastern Gondwana, the territory of the separation of Madagascar Africa about 160 million years, the island of Madagascar was created by separating the Indian subcontinent 80 100 000 000 years. Most archaeologists believe the human settlement of Madagascar happened between 200 and 500 AD, when seafarers from Asia South (probably from Borneo or South Sulawesi) arrived in outrigger sailing canoes. Bantu settlers probably crossed the Mozambique Channel in Madagascar at about the same time or shortly thereafter. However, Malagasy tradition and ethnographic believe may have been preceded by hunting and gathering Mikea. The Anteimoro who established a kingdom in southern Madagascar, the Middle Ages can be traced to immigrants from Somalia.
History Written Madagascar began in the 7th century, when Muslims established trading posts along the northwest coast. During the Middle Ages, the kings of the island began to extend their power through trade with neighboring countries in the Indian Ocean, including Arabic, Farsi and Somali traders Madagascar connected to Africa Middle East and India.
Large chiefdoms began to dominate large areas of the island. Among them were Sakalava chiefdoms Menabe centered on what is now the town of Morondava, Beret and focus on what is now the capital of the province of Mahajanga (Majunga). The influence of the Sakalava extended across what are now the provinces of Antsiranana, Mahajanga and Toliara. Madagascar was a major port transoceanic trade for the east coast of Africa that has given Africa a trade route of Silk Road, and at the same time serves as a port for vessels entering.
The wealth created in Madagascar through the exchange system has created a powerful state ruled by regional monarchs known as Maroserana. These monarchs adopted the cultural traditions of the subjects in their territories and to expand their kingdoms. Caught in the divine state, and the nobility and the artisan class were created. Madagascar has worked at the time of the Middle East, Africa as a contact port to port Swahili city-states others, such as Sofala, Kilwa, Mombasa and Zanzibar.
European contact began in 1500 when the Portuguese captain Diogo Dias sighted the ship island after his ship separated from a park visits India. The Portuguese factory continued with the Islanders and the name of the island to Lourens (San Lorenzo). In 1666, Francois Caron, the director general of the new French East India Company formed, sailed to Madagascar. The Company has not established a colony in Madagascar but established ports on the islands near Bourbon and Ile de France (Mauritius and Runion today). In the 17th century the French established trading posts along the east coast.
Pirate Utopia The most famous is that of Captain Misson and his pirate crew, who founded the libertarian free colony in northern Madagascar in the 17th century. From about 1774 to 1824, Madagascar is a place favorite for pirates, including Americans, one of which Malagasy rice to South Carolina. Many European sailors were shipwrecked off the coast of the island, among them Robert Drury, whose newspaper is one of the few written representations of life in southern Madagascar during the 18th century. Sailors sometimes called Madagascar "Island of the Moon."
In the 1790s, Merina rulers succeeded in establishing hegemony over most of the island, including the coast. In 1817, the Merina ruler and the British Governor Mauritius signed a treaty abolishing the slave trade, which has been important in Madagascar's economy. In return, the island received British military and financial aid. British influence remained strong for several decades, during which the Merina court was converted to Presbyterianism, Congregationalism and Anglicanism.
With the domination of the Indian Ocean by Royal Navy and the end of the Arab slave trade, western Sakalava lost their power to the new situation Merina. Betsimisaraka the east coast also unified, but this union soon faltered.
Queen Ranavalona I "the Cruel" (r. 1828-1861) issued a royal edict prohibiting the practice of Christianity in Madagascar. According to some estimates, 150,000 Christians died during the reign of Ranavalona. The island has become more isolated, and trade with other countries at an impasse.
France invaded Madagascar in 1883 in what became known as the Franco-Hova War seeking to restore property that had French citizens were confiscated. (Hova is one of three Merina classes: Andriana aristocracy, ordinary people Hova, Hova slaves ANOVA The term is used by the French. in the direction of the Merina.) At the end of the war, Madagascar ceded Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), on the north coast of France and paid 560,000 francs to heirs of Joseph-François Lambert. In 1890 the British accepted the imposition of a formal French protectorate.
In 1895, a column of flight French landed in Mahajanga (Majunga) and marched toward the capital, Antananarivo, where defenders of the city surrendered quickly. Twenty French soldiers killed in action and 6,000 died of malaria and other diseases before the second Franco-Hova War ended.
After hostilities ended in 1896 France annexed Madagascar. 103 years, Merina monarchy ended with the royal family being sent into exile in Algeria.
During the Second World War troops Madagascar fought in France, Morocco and Syria. Some leaders in Nazi Germany plans to deport all European Jews to Madagascar (Madagascar Plan) but nothing came of this. After France fell to Germany the Vichy government administered Madagascar. During the Battle of Madagascar, the troops British occupied the island in 1942 to avoid capture by the Japanese, then Free French took over.
In 1947, with French prestige at its lowest point, the lifting of Madagascar exploded. Has been abolished after more than a year of hard struggle, with 8,000 to 90,000 deaths. French institutions later established reformed in 1956 under the framework law (Law Reform overseas), and Madagascar provides peaceful towards independence. Republic of Madagascar was proclaimed 14 October 1958, an autonomous state within the French Community. A period of provisional government ended with the adoption a constitution in 1959 and full independence June 26, 1960. In 2006, the country experienced an attempt at once.
Main articles: Government and Policies of Madagascar Madagascar
Although the current Head of State himself has self-proclaimed Madagascar is usually a semi-presidential representative the democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Madagascar is head of government, and a disambiguation [collector needed] multiparty system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is exercised by the government and the Senate and National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches.
The political situation in Madagascar was marked by the struggle for control. After Madagascar gained independence from France in 1960, assassinations, military coups and contested elections in the foreground.
Didier Ratsiraka took power in a military coup in 1975 and ruled until 2001, with a short break, when he was overthrown in late 1990. When Marc Ravalomanana Ratsiraka claimed victory after two presidential elections of December 2001, Ratsiraka's supporters tried to block the capital, Antananarivo, which was in favor of Ravalomanana. After eight months of sporadic violence, considerable economic disruption, a recount in April 2002 by the High Constitutional Court pronounced Ravalomanana, but not until July that Ratsiraka fled to France and Ravalomanana gained control of the country.
Internal conflicts in Madagascar has been minimal in the following years and since 2002, Marc Ravalomanana and his party, Tiako-I-Madagasikara (TIM), dominated politics. In an attempt to restrict the power and influence of the president, prime minister and parliament of 150 seats have been invested with powers in recent years.
Tension and is generally associated with elections. The presidential elections were held in December 2006 with protests over worsening standards of living, despite a government campaign to eradicate poverty. Request by a general retired in November 2006 for Ravalomanana to step down was called "misinterpreted" as an attempted coup.
protests Madagascar 2009
Main article: 2009 events Madagascar
The largest series of recent and ongoing violence against then President Marc Ravalomanana Rajoelina cons, former mayor of the capital, Antananarivo. Since the fighting began on January 26 to more than 170 people died. Rajoelina mobilized its supporters to take to the streets of Antananarivo to demand the withdrawal of Ravalomanana because of their alleged "autocratic" style of government.
After losing the support of the army and under intense pressure Rajoelina, President Ravalomanana has resigned in March 17, 2009. Ravalomanana has transferred its powers to a military loyal to himself Council chaired by Vice-Admiral Hyppolite Ramaroson. The army said Ravalomanana far as a "ploy" and said he would support Rajoelina as leader. Rajoelina had already said new leader a month earlier and has acted as interim president. Roindefo nun was appointed Prime Minister. Rajoelina announced that elections would be held in two years and that the Constitution would change.
The European Union and other international organizations, refused recognize the new government because it is installed by force. The African Union suspended Madagascar conducted March 20 and the Southern African Development Community criticized both the forced resignation of Marc Ravalomanana. Spokesperson of the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon expressed "deep concerned by developments in Madagascar. "
The provinces and regions
Articles major provinces and regions of Madagascar Madagascar
Madagascar is divided into six autonomous provinces (faritany mizakatena), and subdivided into 22 regions (Faritra), it was established in 2004. The regions will be the highest level of subdivision of the provinces where it is dissolved in accordance with the results of the referendum April 4, 2007, which means October 4, 2009.
The regions are subdivided into 116 districts, 1,548 municipalities and 16,969 fokontany. Big cities have a special status as "urban policy", the same level as the districts.
Main article: Geography of Madagascar
Isalo National Park
In 587 square kilometers (227,000 square miles), Madagascar is the 46th largest country in the world and the fourth largest island. It is slightly larger than France, and is one of 11 distinct physiographic provinces of the South African Platform physiographic division.
Towards the east, a steep escarpment leads from the central highlands of swath of rainforest with a narrow coastal east. Channel Pangalanes is a chain of natural and artificial lakes connected by channels which is parallel to the east coast for about 460 km (286 miles) (roughly two-thirds of the island). The descent from the central plateau to the west is more gradual, with remnants of leaves and failures of forest and savanna plains (in the south and southwest, are quite dry and desert home thorn and baobab trees). On the west coast are many protected harbors, but sedimentation is a serious problem that the sediments have high levels of land erosion.
Along the ridge of the mountain are the central highlands region of high plateaus ranging from 2450 to 4400 feet (747 to 1341 m) altitude. The central highlands are characterized by valleys, terraces of rice between the barren hills. Here, the laterite soil red covering much of the island has been exposed by erosion, showing clearly why the country often called the "Island Red. "
highest peak of the island at 2876 meters Maromokotro (9440 feet), lies in the Tsaratanana Massif, located in the far north. Ankaratra Massif is located in central-south of the capital Antananarivo and hosts the third highest mountain on the island, Tsiafajavona, with an altitude of 2642 meters (8670 feet). Farther south, Andringitra massif which has several peaks over 2400 meters (7900 feet), including the highest peaks in second and fourth, Pic Imarivolanitra, better known as Pic Boby (2658 m / 8720 feet) and Pic Bory (2630 m / 8.600 feet). Other peaks include Pico Soaindra solid (2.620 m / 8.600 m) and Pic Ivangomena (2556 meters / 8390 feet). This massif also contains the Andringitra Reserve. Rarely, this region is experiencing snowfall in winter Because of its high altitude.
There are two seasons: a hot rainy season from November to April and a cooler, dry season from May to October. tradewinds Southeast prevail, and the island occasionally experiences cyclones.
Main article: Fauna of Madagascar Eco-regions of Madagascar, and ecology in Madagascar
Tsingy in Madagascar
Madagascar's long isolation from neighboring continents has resulted in a mixture unique plants and animals many are found nowhere else in the world, some ecologists refer to Madagascar as the "eighth continent". Of the 10,000 plants native to Madagascar, 90% are found nowhere else in the world. varied fauna and flora of Madagascar are threatened by human activity, as one third of its native vegetation had disappeared since the 1970s, and only 18% remains intact. Since the arrival of humans 2,000 years ago, Madagascar lost more than 90% of its original forest. Elephant birds, which were giant ratites native to Madagascar, have been extinct since at least the 17th century. Aepyornis was the largest bird in the world, said was more than 3 meters (10 feet) high.
Most lemurs are in danger or threatened. Many species have become extinct in recent centuries, mainly due to habitat destruction and hunting.
Side is the leeward side of the island is home to tropical forests, while the west and south sides, which are in the rain shadow of Central Highlands, home to tropical dry forests, thorn forests and deserts and xeric shrublands. Dry forest in Madagascar deciduous rain has been preserved generally better than the rain forests of eastern or central plateau, probably because the density population historically low. Madagascar has several national parks.
The indri is one of the 99 recognized species and subspecies of lemurs found only in Madagascar.
logging trees on a large scale has occurred in parts of the country, some because of the operation mining. Slash and burn activities, known locally as Tavy, occurred in the dry forests of the east and west, and in the central plateau, reducing certain forest habitat and applying pressure to some endangered species. Burning is a method sometimes used by shifting cultivators to create short-term yields on marginal soils. When practiced repeatedly without intervening periods fallow soils low in nutrients, may be exhausted or eroded to a productive state. Runoff resulting increase in burned area has caused significant erosion and resulting sedimentation of the rivers of the West.
As part of conservation efforts, the Wildlife Conservation Society has recently opened Madagascar! exhibition at the Bronx Zoo. The New York Academy of Sciences has just published a podcast on Madagascar! exhibition, which details fauna and flora of Madagascar and what types of projects, WCS is involved in the home. The Podcast can be heard here
Madagascar is represented in the FIPS 10-4 geographic coding standard by the symbol MA.
Main article: Economy of Madagascar
Antananarivo is the capital of Madagascar to political and economic
Agriculture, including fisheries and forestry, is a pillar of the economy. The main exports are coffee, vanilla (Madagascar is the largest producer and exporter of vanilla), sugar cane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc), beans, products animal, bananas, peanuts y. Vanilla has always been of particular importance, and when, in 1985, Coca-Cola has moved New Coca-Cola participate less vanilla, Madagascar's economy took a sharp drop but returned to previous levels after the return Coca-Cola Classic.
Structural reforms began in the 1980s, initially under pressure from international financial institutions, including World Bank. An initial privatization program (19881993) and the development of an export processing zone (EPZ) regime in the 1990s consisting of key steps in this effort. A period of significant stagnation from 1991 to 1996 was followed by five years of strong investment growth economic and foreign accelerates, driven by a second wave of privatizations  the development and the industrial area. Although structural reforms advanced, governance remained weak and perceived corruption in Madagascar was extremely high. During the period of strong growth from 1997 to 2001, poverty levels remained stubbornly high, especially in rural areas. At six months of political crisis triggered by a dispute over presidential election results held in December 2001 virtually halted economic activity in most countries in the first half of 2002. Real GDP declined by 12.7% for 2002, FDI inflows have fallen sharply, and the looming crisis tarnished the reputation of Madagascar as a great place to invest and promising AGOA. After the crisis, the economy rebounded with GDP growth of over 10% in 2003. currency depreciation and rising inflation in 2004 have hampered economic growth but for the year reached 5.3%, inflation reached about 25% at the end of the year. In 2005, inflation was controlled by the restrictive monetary policy to meet the Director Rate (rate of the central bank) to 16% and increased the reserve requirements for banks. Thus, the economy would grow 6.5% in 2005.
Following the 2002 political crisis, the government tried to set a new course and build confidence in coordination with international financial institutions and donors. Madagascar developed a recovery plan in collaboration with the private sector and donors and presented in a "Friends of Madagascar" conference organized World Bank in Paris in July 2002. Donor countries demonstrated their confidence in the new government by pledging $ 1 billion assistance over five years. The Government of Madagascar identified road infrastructure as a priority and stressed their commitment to public-private partnership by establishing a committee Joint public-private sector leadership.
Rice paddies in Madagascar
In 2000, Madagascar has undertaken the preparation of a Strategy Paper Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). Boards IMF and World Bank agreed in December 2000 that the country had reached decision point for debt relief under the HIPC Initiative and defined a set of conditions for Madagascar to reach the completion point. In October 2004, the board of the World Bank and the IMF concluded that Madagascar has reached the completion point under the enhanced HIPC Initiative.
From Madagascar and United States Business Council was formed as a partnership between the National Agency for International Development (USAID) and artisan producers Malagasian Madagascar in 2002. The United States and Madagascar Business Council was established in the United States in May 2003, and the two organizations continue to explore ways of working to benefit both groups.
The government of President Ravalomanana is aggressively seeking the foreign investment and the fight against Most barriers to investment, including the fight against corruption, reform the laws of the land, to encourage the study of techniques U.S. and European companies, and actively seeking foreign investors. President Ravalomanana is known for his company TIKO Agri-food and is known for trying to implement many of the lessons learned in government works. Some concern been raised in recent conflict of interest between his policies and activities of their companies. The most notable of these treatment preference for rice imports initiated by the government in late 2004 to meet a production shortfall in the country.
Madagascar sources growth are tourism, exports of textile and light industry (notably through the EPZs), agricultural products and mining. Madagascar is the world's largest producer of vanilla, which represents about half of the world export market. Tourism targets the niche eco-tourism, taking advantage of the unique biodiversity of Madagascar, preserved natural habitats, national parks and lemur species. Export processing zones Export, located around Antananarivo and Antsirabe, constitute the majority of garments, led the U.S. market under AGOA and European markets under the Everything But Arms (EBA) agreement. Agricultural exports consist of products of low volume, high value vanilla, litchi and essential oils. A game, but growing economy based on exploitation of ilmenite, with investments emerging in recent years, particularly near Tulear and Fort Dauphin. The mining company Rio Tinto Group plans to start operations near Fort Dauphin in 2008, after several years of infrastructure preparation. The mining project is highly controversial, with Friends of the Earth and other organizations in the details of environmental reporting their concerns about the effects on the environment and local communities.
Autoclave between Madagascar, 2008, under the new mining
Several major projects are underway in the extraction Oil and gas which, if successful, will give a strong impetus to the economy of Madagascar.
In the mining sector, including development coal and nickel near Tamatave Sako. In oil, Madagascar Oil is developing the field of heavy oil and ultra huge field of oil field Tsimiroro Bemolanga heavy.
Major Foreign Affairs of Madagascar: Article
Madagascar was historically perceived as in the margin of mainstream African affairs, while being a founding member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which was founded in 1963. President Albert Zafy, who took office in 1993, expressed the hope that diplomatic relations with all countries. Early in its mandate established formal ties with South Korea and sent emissaries to Morocco.
Since 1997, globalization encouraged the government and President Ratsiraka to adhere to market-oriented policies and world share markets. External relations reflect this trend, although Madagascar's physical isolation and strong traditional orientation of the island have limited its activity in regional organizations of economic relations with its neighbors in East Africa. Relationship is more pleasant and generally good with its neighbors in Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, the Comoros and Runion. Active relationships with Europe, particularly France, Germany and Switzerland, and Great Britain, Russia, Japan, India and China have been strong since independence. More recently, President Ravalomanana has cultivated close ties with the United States, and Madagascar was the first country to benefit from the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA). Madagascar is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for U.S. military (As covered by Article 98).
The OAU was dissolved in 2002 and was replaced by the African Union. Madagascar has not been allowed to attend the first summit of the African Union because the controversy over the election results in December 2001, but joined African Union in July 2003 after an 14-month hiatus triggered by the 2002 political crisis. However, Madagascar was suspended again by the Union Africa in March 2009 due to the current political crisis.
During his presidency, Marc Ravalomanana of Madagascar has made promotion abroad and consciously sought to strengthen relations with Anglophone countries as a way to balance the French influence, traditionally strong. Also cultivated close ties with China during his tenure.
In November 2004, after an absence of nearly 30 years, Madagascar has reopened its embassy in London. On December 15, 2004, the Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, announced the closure of the British embassy in Antananarivo to save 250,000 annually. He also announced to support the Government of Madagascar, funded by DFID Small Grants Program. The embassy closed in August 2005, despite petitions and protests from African heads of state, the Commissioner, the Senate of Madagascar, many British companies, about 30 NGOs operating Madagascar, and Members of the public. [Citation needed]
The British embassy was closed before (also for financial reasons) 1975 to 1980. Anglo-Malagasy campaign are reopened.
Main article: Demographics of Madagascar
the population of Madagascar is mainly mixed Austronesian (ieSouth-East Asia and the Pacific Islands) and origin Africa. Those who are visibly Austronesian in appearance and culture are the minority, found mostly in mountainous areas. Recent research suggest that the island was uninhabited until the Austronesian seafarers reached some 1,500 to 2,000 years. DNA research Recent evidence shows that the people of Madagascar are about half and half East African descent Austronesian, although some Arab influence is present in Europe and India along the coast. Malagasy language shares 90% of their language basic vocabulary Ma'anyan the River area in southern Borneo Barito.
subsequent migrations from the East Indies and Africa consolidated this original mixture, and 36 separate tribal groups emerged. features Austronesian more predominant in the Merina (3 million) people of the coast (ctiers called) are of African origin more clearly. The largest groups coastal areas are Betsimisaraka (1.5 million) and Tsimihety and Sakalava (700,000 each). Vetch live in the southwest. Two southern tribes are Antandroy and Antanosy. Other tribes are Tankarana (north) and Sihanaka Bezanozano (East), Tanala (southeast), An-Taimoro, Tambahoaka, Zafisoro a Taisaka and Timanambondro (southeast), and Mahafaly and Bara (Southwest). Minorities in China and India are also available, as well as Europeans, mostly French. The number of resident Comorians Madagascar was significantly reduced after anti-riot in Mahajanga Comoros in 1976.
During the French colonial administration (18951960) and some time after independence, people were officially classified in ethnic groups. This practice was discontinued in the first census (1975) after independence, so that any classification in the past and the figures for ethnic groups is an unofficial estimate. There is, for example, no mention of ethnicity or religion on national identity documents. In addition, the territorial divisions (provinces, regions) do not follow ethnic dividing lines, despite an attempt by the colonial administration Century 20. Ethnic divisions remain, and can cause violence, but their role is limited in today's society. Ethnic tensions in Madagascar conflicts occur often violence among the Merina of the mountain and coastal villages. regional political parties are also rare, although some parties receive most of their support in some areas.
Only two general censuses of 1975 and 1993 were carried out after independence.
In 1993 (last census), there were 18,497 Foreigners living in Madagascar, or 0.15% of the population.
The fertility rate is around 5 children per woman. There are about 29 doctors per 100,000 inhabitants. The infant mortality rate 74 per 1,000 live births in 2005. Life expectancy at birth was 58.4 in the 21 th century. The health expenditure was U.S. $ 29 (PPP) in 2004.
Main article: Languages of Madagascar
The Malagasy language is of Malayo-Polynesian and is generally spoken throughout the island. Madagascar is a country of French language and French is spoken in the educated population of this former French colony. English, although still rare, is becoming more widespread, and in 2003 the government began a pilot project for introduction of teaching English in primary schools of 44, hoping to take the project nationwide. Many Peace Corps volunteers are teachers serving over this effort and train.
In the first Constitution of 1958, Madagascar and France have been named the official languages of the Republic of Madagascar.
No official languages were recorded in the 1992 Constitution. However, Madagascar was named the national language, however, many sources still claimed that Malagasy and French are official languages, they were de facto. In April 2000, a citizen filed a complaint the ground that publication of official documents in the French language was unconstitutional. The High Constitutional Court observed in its decision in the absence a guidance law language, the French still had the status of official language.
The Constitution of 2007, Madagascar is the national language, while official languages are reintroduced: Malagasy, French and English. The motivation for the inclusion of English is partly to improve relations with neighboring countries, where English is used and to encourage foreign direct investment.
Section: Culture from Madagascar
Malagasy culture reflects a mixture of South Asian, Arab, African and European. Properties in Madagascar are normally four sides with a gable roof, with a style common in South Asia, rather than circular style cottage built mostly found in East Africa. Rice is the basis of every meal in most countries and Asia. Prepared dishes to accompany rice vary depending on local availability of food and are known as laoka.
The Arab immigrants are few compared to the Indonesians and Bantus, but left a lasting impression. names Madagascar for the seasons, months, days, and parts are of Arab origin, as is the practice of circumcision, the communal pool of cereals, and different forms of greeting. Arab magicians, known ombiasy settled by the courts of several tribal kingdoms of Madagascar. Arab immigrants established a patriarchal system of family and clan status in Madagascar. Before the Arabs, the practice of Polynesia Malagasy matriarchal system in which the rights and privileges Property is divided equally to men and women.
A significant proportion of the adult population is illiterate. The literacy rate among young women is lower than the literacy rate among young men. Public expenditure on education was 16.4% of total government spending in 2000-2007. Current public expenditure on primary education per pupil is U.S. $ 57 (PPP). Madagascar several universities.
Main article: Cuisine of Madagascar
Section Home: Music of Madagascar
Madagascar has a rich and distinctive musical heritage. The first settlers brought with them the forerunner of the Austronesian bamboo tube zither known as valiha and other instruments that form the basis of traditional Malagasy music. The African influence is evident in some drums and singing styles polyharmonic, while the trend towards minor agreements along the coast reflects the influence of Arabic music. European hackers Madagascar also contributed to musical traditions, the import guitar, accordion, piano and instruments used in performing hiragasy including the violin, trumpet and clarinet.
Main article: Mythology Madagascar
The country has a rich tradition of oratory as hainteny, kabary and ohabolana. An epic, the Ibonia has been passed down for centuries in various forms across the island and the sample the lively and highly developed oral traditions of Madagascar.
Article détaillé: hainteny
The zebu, or oxen bump, occupies an important place in traditional Malagasy culture. The animal may have sacred significance and the wealth of the owner, a tradition that comes Africa. theft of livestock, causing a rite of passage for young people in the plains of Madagascar, where the highest herds of cattle are raised, has become a dangerous criminal enterprise and sometimes fatal as pastors in the West attempt to defend their livestock with traditional spears against thieves professionals increasingly armed. Where African influences are stronger, as in the southern region around Tulear, wealth and social status are measured in cattle, and zebu are more numerous than the inhabitants of two or three to one. Cebu is a popular motif in aloalos, carved wooden posts to decorate graves among some tribes in the Southwest.
Andrianampoinimerina (about 17,451,810) United Kingdom The Merina Ambohimanga move its capital to Antananarivo and construction his royal palace, or Rova, a strategic location on the highest hill overlooking the city. A series of cultural traditions, including kabary and hiragasy, were popularized during the period of his administration.
Main article: Religion in Madagascar
Main article: Mythology of Madagascar
About 50% of the country's religion, the traditional practice, which tends to emphasize the links between the living and the dead. The Merina highlands particularly tend to hold strongly to this practice. They believe that the dead join their ancestors in the ranks of the ancestors divinity and are intensely concerned about the fate of their descendants live. The Merina and Betsileo famadihana burial practice, or "turning the dead "Celebrate this spiritual communion. In this ritual, the family remains are removed from the tomb of the family, put in new silk shrouds, and returned to tomb after the festive ceremony in their honor, where sometimes the bodies are lifted and carried above the celebrants heads with singing and dancing before returning to the grave.
Traditionally, the Malagasy have their ancestors in high esteem and many believe he will continue to intervene in the events on Earth after her death. An individual may establish a powerful fady (taboos) in your life that all his descendants or members of the community must be respected long after his death, which means that when you travel to Madagascar is advised to consult the elders or local authorities and to investigate fady on so as not to unwittingly violate and offend the local population. This veneration of ancestors has also led to the tradition of building the tomb and famadihana, a practice that is still a member of the family of the deceased may be taken from the grave to be regularly re-wrapped in shrouds fresh silk before being replaced in the grave. The event is an opportunity to celebrate the memory of a loved one, meet family and community, and enjoy a festive atmosphere. The inhabitants of surrounding villages were invited to attend the festival, where Food and rum are often served and musical entertainment group or hiragasy is usually present.
Main article: Roman Catholicism Madagascar
See also: the persecution of Christians Ranavalona I #
Roman Catholic cathedral in Antsirabe.
Today, about 45% of Malagasy are Christian, divided almost evenly between Catholics and Protestants. Many incorporate the cult of the dead with their religious beliefs of others and to bless their dead at church before proceeding with the traditional funeral rites. You can also invite a Christian minister to attend a famadihana. Several Christian churches are influential in politics. The best example is the Council of Churches in Madagascar (FFKM) comprising the four oldest and largest Christian denominations (Catholic, Church of Jesus Christ Madagascar, Lutheran and Anglican). In the 19th century, under Queen Ranavalona I, who had persecuted the infamous mass-murder of Christians.
Section Home: Islam in Madagascar
Islam in Madagascar is about 7% of the population. Arab traders and Somali Muslims who first brought Islam in the Middle Ages had a profound influence on the West Coast. For example, many of Madagascar converted to Islam and the Malagasy language was, for the first time, registered in an alphabet based in the Arabic alphabet, called Sorbian. Muslims are concentrated in the provinces of Mahajanga and Antsiranana (Diego Suarez). Muslims are divided between those of Malagasy ethnicity, Indians, Pakistanis and the Comoros.
Main article: Hinduism in Madagascar
Hinduism in Madagascar began in the Saurashtra region Gujarati in India date back to 1900, when Madagascar was a French colony. Most Hindus in Madagascar speak Gujarati or Hindi.
International Classification of
Economics Institute and peace
Global Peace Index
72 of 144
United Nations Development Programme
Human Development Index
Perceptions Index Corruption
99 A total of 180
World Economic Forum
Global Competitiveness Report
Main articles: Diagram of Madagascar and the index of articles related to Madagascar
Military of Madagascar
Transportation in Madagascar
Communications in Madagascar
Diplomatic missions Madagascar
Eto Madagasikara Firaisan'ny Skotisma
^ "Madagascar" is the correct form in English, Embassy of Madagascar in Washington DC "Madagascar" is used only for the island, not the people from National Geographic Style Manual
^ Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Madagascar." The World Factbook. https: / / www.cia.gov / library / publications / The-world-factbook / geos / ma.html. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
Abcd ^ "Madagascar." International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=674&s=NGDPD, NGDPDPC, PPPGDP, PPPPC, LP & grp = 0 & a = y = 54 = 18 pr.x and pr.y. Accessed 10/01/2009.
^ Human Development Index, Table 3: Poverty Human and income, p. 35. Accessed June 1, 2009
^ BBC NEWS | Science / Nature | Giant palm tree puzzles botanists
^ Malagasy languages Encyclopdia Colombia
^ Migration from Kalimantan to Madagascar by OC Dahl
^ Archaeology, Linguistics, and the past of Africa by Roger Blench
^ Diaspora Indian Ocean by Shihan S. Africa Jayasuriya, P. Richard Pankhurst 82
^ "Background Note: Madagascar." U.S. State Department. Http: / / www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5460.htm. Accessed 08/12/2008.
^ Cities of Middle East and North Africa by Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Janet L. Stanley Abu-Lughod pg 391
^ Kingdoms of Madagascar: Merina and Maroserana
^ "Madagascar." Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_ (1913) and Madagascar.
^ Vincent, Rose (1990). The French in India: From Diamond Traders to Sanskrit scholars. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 0-8613-2259-2.
^ From Madagascar the Malagasy Republic, by Raymond K. Kent PG 6571
^ Madagascar: historical and descriptive account of the island and its dependencies Pasfield Samuel Oliver Antigua., P. 6. Source (Google Books)
Ranavalona ^ I (Merina Queen's). Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
^ Keith Laidler. Male Caligula. Ranavalona, Queen mad Madagascar. Wiley (2005) -13 IFBN 978-0-470-02223-8 (HB).
^ (France) 1947 Insurrection Madagascar – Jean Fremigacci – Marianne [link] Broken
Ab ^ IRIN Africa | South Africa | Madagascar | MADAGASCAR: Violence may escalate "| Conflict Government | News
^ IRIN Africa | Africa South | Madagascar | MADAGASCAR: Former president sentenced to five years in prison | Government | News
^ IRIN Africa | South Africa | Madagascar MADAGASCAR |: hope for fair and transparent elections, controversy | Other Government Business | News
^ IRIN Africa | Southern Africa | Madagascar | MADAGASCAR: call, despite political uncertainty | Children Economy Food Security and Nutrition Government Conflict of health …
Corbett ^ Ab, Christina; McGreal, Chris (March 18, 2009). "Madagascar is president resigns rival claims." The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/mar/18/madagascar-marc-ravalomanana.
^ Abc "military backs rival Madagascar." BBC News. March 17, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7949596.stm.
^ "Opposition Premier Minister of Madagascar supports the desktop. "Xinhua. March 14, 2009. Http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/14/content_11011120.htm.
^ "The resignation President of Madagascar. "The Voice of America. Http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-03-16-voa65.cfm. Accessed on 17/03/2009.
^ From the Union African suspended for Madagascar 'coup' – Africa, World – The Independent
^ (UPDATE) Army puts opposition leader in Madagascar Position | Home> Sections>>> Other Breaking News
^ The Eighth Continent: Life, Death, and Discovery in the Lost World of Madagascar
^ ab "Science News: New type of self-destructive Palm found in Madagascar," Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew http://www.kew.org/scihort/news/new_palm_genus.html … Accessed on 30/01/2008.
^ Terrestrial Ecoregions – Madagascar subhumid forests (AT0118), National Geographic.
^ Davies, SJJF (2003)
^ Hunted lemurs, half eaten civil unrest, the group said. National Geographic News. August 21, 2009.
Science and the City ^ | Gateway Public at the New York Academy of Science
^ "Independent States in the world." U.S. State Department. 20/03/2008. http://www.state.gov/s/inr/rls/4250.htm. Accessed on 24/05/2008.
^ Madagascar – Country facts, Goway Travel Experiences
^ "Made in Madagascar: The exports of handicrafts market U.S.: a project with the United Nations Public-Private Partnership United for Rural Development, Final Report, "a project with the Alliance United Nations Public-private partnerships for rural development.
^ Madagascar – Mining: Mining of heavy minerals
^ Rio Tinto's Madagascar mining project
^ "Africa rejects" hit "Madagascar" bbc.co.uk, 20 March 2009 Link access March 20, 2009
^ U.S. Library of Congress "Madagascar – minorities"
^ The racialization of social relations Madagascar
^ "Madagascar Rocks ethnic conflicts." News BBC. May 14, 2002.
^ Http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_MDG.html ABCDEFG
^ "Madagascar and French are official languages Republic of Madagascar. "Constitution, Title I, Art. Constitutional October 14, 1958 2.
^ In Madagascar High Constitutional Court, the n03-HCC/D2 RULING April 12, 2000
^ Madagascar adopts English as official language, ClickAfrique.com, April 10, 2007.
^ Http: / / www.unicef.org / infobycountry / ab madagascar_statistics.html
^ III and Madagascar in Africa. The Anteimoro: a theocracy in southern Madagascar, by RK Kent Journal of 62 per 1969 History of Africa
^ "Vision of humanity. "Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Accessed on 02/04/2010.
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Lat. and long. 1855 4731 / 18.917S 47.517E / 18,917, 47,517 (Antananarivo)
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14581550 Ceguer Alccer (Seghir is QSAR)
14711550 Arzila (Asilah)
14851550 Mazagan (El Jadida)
1487 Ouadane mid 16th century
14881541 Safim (Safi)
15051769 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gu (Agadir)
15061525 Mogador (Essaouira)
Sharpen 15061525 (Souira Guedima)
15061769 Mazagan (El Jadida)
15131541 Azamor (Azemmour)
15771589 Arzila (Asilah)
So TOM1 14701975
Fernando 14781778 Poo (Bioko)
14821637 Elmina (Mina So Jorge da)
Portuguese Gold Coast 14821642
14961550 Madagascar (part)
Portuguese E. 15011975 Africa (Mozambique)
St. Helena 15021659
15051512 Quloa (Kilwa)
15751975 Portuguese West Africa (Angola)
15931698 Mombassa (Mombasa)
Cape Verde 16421975
16801961 ajud So Joo Baptista
17281729 Mombassa (Mombasa)
Then Tom and Prince 17531975
Portuguese Guinea 18791974
18851975 Portuguese Congo (Cabinda)
So part of Tom and Prince, 1753. 2 Part of Portuguese Guinea from 1879.
15061615 Gamru (Bandar-Abbas)
15151622 Hormuz (Ormus)
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15211602 Bahrain (Manama, Muharraq and)
1521? 1551? Tarut Island
1620? Khor Fakkan
Dibba Al Hisn 16241648
1624? Bandar-e Kong
14981545 Lakshadweep (Lakshadweep)
15001663 Cochin (Kochi)
15021661 Quilon (Coul / Kollam)
15021663 Cannanore (Kannur)
15071657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)
15121525 Calicut (Kozhikode)
Bandana 15181619 (Pulicat)
15341601 Salsette Island
15341661 Bombay (Mumbai)
15351739 Baam (Vasai-Turn)
15361662 Cranganor (Kodungallur)
15481658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)
Daman and Diu 15591962
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15181658 Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 17791954
East Asia and Oceania
Portuguese Malacca 15111641
15121621 Banda Islands
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Tenth 15711639 (Dejima, Nagasaki)
16421975 Portuguese Timor (Timor East) 1
Portas do Cerco 18491999
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January 1975 is the date of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, the independence of East Timor was recognized by Portugal and the rest of the world.
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