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Felix the Cat
Felix origins remain controversial. Australian cartoonist Pat Sullivan film entrepreneur, the owner of the character Felix said during his life and its creator. American animator Otto Messmer, Sullivan's lead facilitator, has been most commonly attributed to credit in recent decades. Some historians claim that the phantom of Messmer Sullivan. What is certain is that Felix emerged from Sullivan's studio, and cartoons with the character knows success and popularity in the 1920s.
In the 1920 Felix experienced huge popularity in popular culture. He had his own comic strip (drawn by Messmer) from 1923, and his image soon adorned all sorts of products such as pottery, toys and postcards. Several manufacturers made stuffed animals Felix. jazz bands like Paul Whiteman's played songs from it (1923's "Felix continued walking "and others).
At the end of 1920 with the arrival of its success animated drawings of Felix was melted. New Mickey Mouse shorts Disney made a bid to silence Sullivan and Messmer, who were ready to move production sound has become obsolete. In 1929, Sullivan decided to make the transition and began distributing Felix sound cartoons through Copley portraits. The sound Felix shorts proved failed and the operation ended in 1930. Sullivan died in 1933. Felix saw a brief resurrection three animated cartoons in 1936 by Van Beuren Studios.
Felix began broadcasting cartoons on American television in 1953. Meanwhile, Joe Oriolo, who Felix now directs comic, introduced a new design "long-legged" Felix in a new animated series for television. Oriolo also added new characters, and gave Felix a "bag of tricks", which could take an infinite variety of forms at the request of Felix. The cat appeared in other television programs and two feature films. Felix comes in a variety of apparel products toys. Oriolo's son, Don Oriolo, now controls creative work on Felix movies.
Feline Follies Pat Sullivan, silence, 1919. Duration 4min44s, 501kbps
A scene of Felix "laffing" from "Felix in Hollywood" (1923).
Pat Sullivan work
Felix and Charlie share Chaplin on screen in a memorable moment from "Felix in Hollywood" (1923).
The famous Felix pace, as seen in "Oceantics" (1930)
On November 9, 1919, Master Tom, a prototype Felix, debuted in a Paramount Pictures short entitled Feline Follies. Product Study the New York City-based animation, Pat Sullivan owned the cartoon was directed by cartoonist and animator Otto Messmer. He was a success, and the study Sullivan quickly went to work in producing another film featuring Master Tom, the cat Felix the prototype in Antigua Music (published November 16, 1919). He also was a success with the public. Otto Messmer gave two different versions of how his name is Felix, who is on their official website ejoining Sullivan with a great idea for a new character, Felix the Cat, and the second r. (John) King magazine Paramount has suggested the name "Felix", after the Latin words felis (Cat) and Felix (chance), which was used for the third film, The Adventures of Felix (published December 14, 1919). Pat Sullivan said after Australia's Felix Felix's name in the history of Australia and literature. In 1924, animator Bill Nolan redesigned the kitten, making it much more rounded and cute. Felix's new looks, as well as animation Character Messmer, Felix is famous.
The question of who exactly created Felix remains controversial. Sullivan said in interviews, he created many newspapers and Felix made the key drawings for the character. During a visit to Australia in 1925, Sullivan told The Argus: "The idea was that gave me a vision of a cat that my wife brought to the studio one day. "At other times, said Felix was Rudyard Kipling was inspired by "The cat in this manner in itself" or the love of his lost wife. Members of the Australian Association of cartoons have shown that the letters used in writing Feline Follies matches Sullivan. Pat Sullivan also noted in his drawings, he was a great contradiction of claims Messmer. asks Sullivan is also supported by his March 18, 1917, publishing a short story entitled The Tail of Thomas Kat more than two years before the cats crazy. Both a documentary project Australian ABC TV in 2004 and the commissioners of an exhibition at the State Library of New South Wales South in 2005, suggested that Thomas Kat was a prototype or precursor of Felix. However, some details of Thomas have survived. His skin color has not been definitively established, and the copyright survivor synopsis indicates significant differences between Thomas and then Felix. For example, while The late Felix magically transforms his tail and other tools, objects, Thomas is an anthropomorphic cat who lost its tail in a fight with a rooster, who did never recovered.
Sullivan was the owner of study and as is the case with almost all contractors whose film rights copyright of any creative work of its employees. Like many leaders over time, Messmer was not credited. After death Sullivan in 1933, assets in Australia took control of the character.
It was not until many years after the death of Sullivan Sullivan and Hal personal Walker, Al Eugster, and Sullivan's lawyer, Harry Kopp, credited Messmer with the creation of Felix. They said that Felix was based on a Charlie Chaplin movie Messmer had animated for Sullivan's studio earlier. The downward and outward personality and movements of the cat in Cat Follies reflect key attributes of Chaplin, and familial body Felix blockier but am black is already there (Messmer is in solid form easier to animate). Messmer recalled version the creation of the cat in an interview with historian John Canemaker Animation:
Sullivan's study was very busy, and Paramount, which is behind their program and they need a supplement to fill, and Sullivan, who is very busy, he said, "If you want to do on the side you can do any little thing to satisfy them. "So I thought a cat is on the simplest. Do the All Blacks, you know you should worry about the edges. And one joke after another, you know? Lindo. And all the laughter. So Paramount liked so I ordered a series.
Many animation historians (mostly American and English) new allegations Messmer. Among them, Michael Barrier, Jerry Beck, Colin and Timothy Cowles, Crafton, Donald, David Gerstein, Milt Gray Kausler, Mark Leonard Maltin, and Salomon Carlos.
Regardless of who created Felix the Cat Sullivan marketed relentlessly, while that Messmer continued to produce huge volumes of drawings Felix cartoons. Messmer is the animation directly on white paper with ink drawings location directly. The animators drew funds into pieces of celluloid, which were prepared, and images to be photographed. Any prospect of working should be animated by hand, as the studio cameras were unable to perform pans or trucks. Messmer began in 1923 a comic strip distributed by King Features Syndicate.
Popularity and distribution
Felix the Cat Cartoon Daily debuted in England on August 1 Project in 1923 and entered syndication in the U.S. on August 19 this year. This band was the second emerge (August 26). Although this work has been Messmer, he was required to sign the name of Sullivan for. The band has a remarkable collection of 1920's slang, like "this buzz Job Type "and" if you want a power surge just follow me. "
Click to enlarge.
Paramount Pictures distributed the first films from 1919 to 1921. Margaret J. Winkler distributed the shorts from 1922 to 1925, the year when education Pictures has taken over the distribution of short films. Felix Sullivan has promised a new short every two weeks. The combination of solid entertainment, trade promotion and distribution of popularity to new Felix vertices.
References to alcoholism and prohibition also common in many short Felix, Felix especially the whole (1924), by whats and why others (1927), Felix woos Whoopee (1930) to name a few. In Felix idiots It Out (1924), Felix tries to help his friend who is homeless facing a red nose. At the end of the short, the cat finds the cure for the condition: "Keep drinking, and it turns blue."
In addition, Felix was one of the first images broadcast on television when RCA chose a cardboard sleeve Felix doll for an experiment of 1928 by New York to Van Cortlandt Park W2XBS. The doll was chosen for its tonal contrast and its ability to withstand the intense lights needed. He was placed on a turntable and photographed for about two hours each day. After a one-time payment of Sullivan, the doll remained on the plate for nearly a decade as RCA fine-tuned the definition of the image.
Felix success also spawned a host of imitators. Appearances and personalities of other feline star Julius 1920s, Walt Disney Alice Comedies, Paul Terry Waffles Fables of Aesop film, and in particular Bill Nolan 1925 adaptation of Krazy Kat (Distributed by the Division of Winkler) appear to have been directly inspired Felix.
Felix cartoons are also very popular among critics. She cited as examples of surrealism imagination in the film.
Felix in the color caricature of the goose Golden Egg (1936)
Felix is supposed to represent a child's sense of wonder, creating the fantastic when it is not there and take it easy when you are. His famous paceands back, head down to the bottom thoughtecame a brand that has been analyzed by critics around the world. Felix's expressive tail, which could be a shovel in a moment, an exclamation mark or pencil the other, serves to emphasize anything can happen in their world. Aldous Huxley wrote that the Felix shorts proved that "what cinema can do better than literature or the spoken drama must be exceptional. "
In 1923, the figure was at the height of his career in film. Felix in Hollywood, has just published this year, plays on the popularity of Felix as it meets these celebrities fellow like Douglas Fairbanks, Cecil B. DeMille, Charlie Chaplin, Ben Turpin, and even censorship Will H. Hays. His image can be seen on clocks, Christmas ornaments, and never like a giant ball made the first Thanksgiving Day Parade Macy's. Felix also became the subject of several popular songs of the era, such as Felix walked "by Paul Whiteman. Sullivan made an estimated to 100,000 per year the toy alone. With the success of the character also emerged a handful of new co-star. These include master Felix, Willie Brown, a mouse paper with long names, Felix nephews Inky, Dinky, and Winky, and his girlfriend Kitty.
Most of the early Felix cartoons reflects the attitude Americans from the "Roaring Twenties". ethnic stereotypes appear in court hunger Felix (1924). Recent events such as Russian Civil War as seen in short puzzled All Felix (1924). Flappers were caricatured Felix was on strike Rico (also 1924). He also involved in the union with Felix Revolts (1923). In some courts, even Felix made a version of Charleston.
In 1928, he left the release of Felix cartoons education, and many were taken over by First National Pictures. Copley Pictures distributed them to 1929 to 1930. He saw a brief revival of three cartoons in 1936 by Van Beuren Studios (The goose that lays golden eggs, and King Neptune nonsense Cole in bold). Sullivan made the most of marketing for the character in the 1920s, these short boy who speaks in a high-pitched voice that was provided as by Mae Questel, the voice of Betty Boop and Olivia.
Felix as mascot
U.S. Navy squadron insignia of the VF-31, 1948
Given the popularity of character unprecedented and that its name is partly derived from the Latin word meaning "luck," some quite remarkable and organizations adopted Felix as pet. The first was in Los Angeles Chevrolet dealer and friend of Pat Sullivan named Winslow B. Felix opened his showroom in 1921. Neon Sign three sides of Felix Chevrolet, with its giant, smiling images of nature, is today one of the most famous places of Los Angeles standing watch in both Figueroa Street and Highway Harbor. Users who have adopted the 1922 Felix including New York Yankees and the aviator Charles Lindbergh, who took a Felix doll with him on his historic flight in the Atlantic Ocean.
This popularity has continued. In the 1920s, the bombings of two U.S. Navy Squadron (VB 2B) adopted an insignia of the unit consisting of Felix happily carrying a bomb with a wick lit. Logo retained through the 1930s, when became a fighter squadron in the designations VF-6B and, later, VF-3, whose members John Edward O'Hare and Thach became famous aviators of the Second World War. After the Second World War a U.S. Navy fighter squadron currently designated VFA-31 replaces the winged logo carving knife with the same logo, Felix after the original team was disbanded. The company, based in the night fighter squadron, nicknamed the "Tomcatters" remained active under different names have continued until today and Felix still appears in two spots on the team jacket fabric and the aircraft, carrying his bomb in the burning fuse.
Felix is the mascot former high school in the State of Indiana, elected in 1926 after a player Logansport High School Felix has brought his stuffed a match basketball. When the team rallied and won that night, Felix became the mascot of all sports teams Logansport High School.
The pop punk band The Queers also use Felix as a mascot, often said to reflect the sensitivity punk and attributes, such as frowning, smoking or playing guitar. Felix adorns the covers of both Surf Goddess EP and the startup disk Movement Back. Felix also appears in the video for the single "Do Back Down. "In addition to appearing on the covers and notes of various albums of the chat icon also appears on the goods as T-shirts and buttons. In an interview with bassist B-Cara said that Lookout! Records are responsible for the use of Felix as a mascot.
Felix appeared in an advertisement for Daihatsu 1991 Japanese Watch as "Felix the eye."
From silent to sound
Felix and Inky and Winky in "April Maze" (1930)
With the arrival of the Jazz singer in 1927, education Pictures, which distributed the Felix shorts at the time, urged Pat Sullivan to make the leap to "talkie" cartoon, but Sullivan refused. Conflict later led to a rupture between education and Sullivan. It is when Walt Disney Steamboat Willie made film history as the first cartoon about a soundtrack synchronized Sullivan highlighted the possibilities of sounds. He managed to get a contract with First National Pictures in 1928. However, for reasons unknown, it did not last, so Sullivan Jacques Kopfstein searched and Copley Pictures to distribute his new sound Felix cartoons. On October 16, 1929, published an advertisement in the newspaper announcing Felix film, Jolson-style: "You know nothing yet!"
Unfortunately, nothing good was heard of the transition Felix sound. Sullivan did not care to prepare for the transition Felix the sound and the sound of his cartoon animation effects such as post-treatment. The results were disastrous. More than ever, it seemed that the mouse Disney approached the public away from the star silence Sullivan. Even the markings off-beat "Felix woos Whoopee" or the Silly Symphony-esque April Maze (two in 1930) could find the audience of the franchise. Finally Kopfstein Sullivan canceled the contract. Later, he announced his intention to launch a new studio California, but these ideas never materialized. Things went from bad to worse when Sullivan's wife, Marjorie, died in March 1932. After this, Sullivan completely fell apart. He fell into alcoholic depression, his health declined rapidly, and his memory begins to fade. He could not cash a check, even Messmer and his office has been reduced to a mere doodles. He died in 1933. Messmer recalled
He left quite a mess, no books, nothing. So when he died the place was closed at the height of popularity, where the world, RKO, and all for years attempted to take over from Felix. . . . I did not have this authority [More] character because I have not the legal ownership of it.
In 1935, J. Amadee Van Beuren Van Beuren studies Messmer called and asked if he could return Felix on the screen. Van Beuren even stated that Messmer would be equipped with complete equipment and all necessary utilities. However, Messmer declined his offer and instead recommended Burt Gillett, a former employee of Sullivan that he was now before the Van Beuren staff. In 1936, Van Beuren obtained approval from Sullivan's brother Felix leave his study with the intention of producing new pants, two colors and sounds. With Gillett bar, heavily influenced by Disney, which ended with Felix established personality and he is just a fun character and animal type popular in the day. The New shorts have been unsuccessful, and after only three races Van Beuren discontinued the series.
In 1953, Official Films has bought the Sullivan-Messmer shorts, added soundtracks for them, and distributed to markets in home theater and television. Messmer continued Sunday comics Felix until they were abolished in 1943 when he began eleven years of writing and comic books Felix Draw Monthly Dell Comics. In 1954, Messmer retired from the Felix daily newspaper strips, and his assistant Joe Oriolo (creator of Casper the Friendly Ghost) took over. Oriolo concluded an agreement with the new owner Felix Pat Sullivan's nephew, to begin a new series of cartoons on television Felix. Oriolo then star Felix in 260 television cartoons distributed Trans-Lux from 1958. Like the Van Beuren studio before, Oriolo gave Felix a personality more domesticated and pedestrian traffic, more oriented toward children, and introduced what is known as Felix Magic bag of tricks, a portfolio could take the shape and characteristics of anything Felix wanted. The program is also remembered for his characteristic theme, written by Winston Sharples in 1950 and made the big band The singer Ann Bennett
Felix the Cat
The cat wonderful, wonderful!
Should be at an impasse
He arrives in his bag of tricks!
Felix the Cat
The cat wonderful, wonderful
You'll laugh if that side of pain
Your heart goes pitter pat
Viewing Felix the Cat wonderful!
Felix the Cat
The cat wonderful, wonderful
You You never know what to do
So do not even try to guess
Felix the Cat
The cat wonderful, wonderful
It's really fun for everyone
Nobody can dispute
For it is wonderful Felix the cat!
The concert ended with Felix second previous roles and introduces many new characters, all of which were performed by voice actor Jack Mercer:
The teacher, a sinister villain, mustachioed role was head of Felix
Poindexter, the Professor is the intelligent nephew but bookish (who has an IQ of 222) that sometimes work with his uncle Felix cons, but often presents as a friend of Felix and work against his uncle
Rock Bottom bulldog face of the professor, awkward assistant
The master cylinder, evil robot, cylindrical, self-proclaimed "King of the Moon"
Vavoom, a small, humble and respectful of the Inuit, whose only vocalization is a scream (literally) earth-shaking in its own name (but he was powerless if his mouth was taped.)
Oriolo plots revolve around the unsuccessful attempts of the antagonists to steal Felix's magic bag, but in an unusual twist, the antagonists sometimes shown as friends and Felix. The cartoons proved popular, but critics have dismissed the fence from the first Sullivan-Messmer work, especially since the cartoons Oriolo for children. limited animation (requires lines of history because of constraints Budgetary) simplistic and does not diminish the popularity of the series.
Today Oriolo son, Don, still on the market of the cat. In 1988, Felix played in his first film, Felix the Cat: The Movie, in which he, the Professor and Poindexter visit an alternate reality. The film was a flop at the box office. In addition, no even published until 1991. In 1995, Felix appeared on television again, in a series called The Twisted unconventional Tales of Felix the Cat. Baby Felix followed in 2000 for the Japanese market, the direct-to-video Felix the Cat Saves Christmas. Felix has also co-starred with Betty Boop in "Betty Boop and Felix "comic strip (1984-1987). Oriolo has also provoked a new wave of merchandising Felix, all food toys Wendy a game for children Nintendo Entertainment System.
Felix in his first appearance on screen chat fou "(1919)
Since the publication of John Canemaker Felix The Twisted Tale of majority in the cat world famous in 1991, has been a renewed interest in shorts earlier Sullivan-Messmer. Recent years, the films I've seen a lot of VHS and DVD exposure, particularly in the presentation of Felix the Cat video compilations Bosko, Felix! Lumivision of Felix the Cat: Collector's Edition Delta Entertainment, Before Mickey from Inkwell Images Ink, the recent Felix the Cat Animation Rarities and 1920 Thunderbird. Messmer Felix cartoon compilations have also begun to emerge as Nine Lives to Live: A Classic Felix Celebration David Gerstein and, more recently, The Adventures of Felix cartoon cat Determined Productions.
According to Don Oriolo Felix the Cat blog in September 2008 envisaged in the development of a new television series. page biography Don also mentions a cartoon series of 52 chapters in books.
Main article: List of Felix the Cat
of voice actors
Mae Questel (1936)
Jack Mercer (1958-1961)
Chris Phillips (1988)
Carlos Alazraqui (ongoing)
Thom Adcox-Hernandez & Charlie Adler (1995-1997)
Grey DeLisle (2000-2001)
Wayne Allwine (2004)
Felix made an appearance in the Disney and Amblin Entertainment, Who Framed Roger Rabbit in the final film with the Toons. First, the image appears in your hands with RK Maroon in RK Maroon Office, and after appearing as the masks of tragedy and comedy into the cornerstone of the entrance to Toontown.
Felix the cat appeared in the goalie Felix Potvin helmet while playing for the Boston Bruins
It is believed that looked Naoto Shima Felix the Cat as a source of inspiration for the design of Sonic the Hedgehog.
In Japan, two commercials for 1991 Daihatsu Mira star Felix. It There was a special court-package called "Felix The Look" that offers both.
The cartoon My Life as a Teenage Robot has a restaurant called "Mezmer of" (the name of Otto Messmer), and the restaurant entrance is a giant head of Felix the Cat.
In an episode of The Simpsons, Dean Scungio quotes "The Encyclopedia of Comic Strips" in the history of Felix: "A doll of Felix became a partner Charles Lindbergh on his famous flight across the Atlantic. "In another episode of The Simpsons, in which the origins of cartoon characters Itchy & Scratchy explores some parallels between the creation of Felix contested history outlined above, and includes a film parody called Manhattan Madness presented as the first cartoon Itchy & Scratchy, supposedly in 1919, which is similar in style to "Felix in Hollywood" and other principles Felix animations.
Felix the cat appeared at the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade 1927, becoming the first balloon to float in the parade.
Felix appeared in the opening credits of episodes of Futurama How Hermes requisitioned his rhythm back, the lesser of two evils and war is the H-Word
Animation in the United States in the era of silent films
The golden age of American animation
^ Solomon, 34, said the character was "Not yet named Felix."
^ Abcde Solomon 34.
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^ Ab "All media and legends … A thumbnail dipped in tar. "Vixenmagazine.com. Accessed on 28/09/2008 the. Http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.vixenmagazine.com/News.html&date=2008 -09 To 28. Accessed on 14/09/2008.
^ Solomon barrier 29 and 34.
^ Barrier, 30.
Solomon ^ abc 37.
^ For example, Solomon, 34, Marcel Brion go to these points.
Solomon ^ 36.
^ Quoted in Solomon 34.
^ "The Queers – Interviews. Thequeersrock.com. Accessed 28/09/2008 original. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.thequeersrock.com/interviewsbface.html&date=2008-09-28. Accessed on 14/09/2008.
^ Http: / / findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100434
^ Quoted in Solomon 37.
^ Http: / / Www.donsfelixblog.com / bio.html
Barrera, Michael (1999): Hollywood Cartoons. Oxford University Press.
Beck, Jerry (1998): Top 50 cartoons. JG Press.
Canemaker, John (1991): Felix: The Twisted Tale of the most famous cat in the world. Pantheon, New York.
Crafton, Donald (1993): Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 18981928. University of Chicago Press.
Culhane, Shamus (1986): talking animals and other people. St. Martin's Press.
Gerstein, David (1996): Nine Lives to live. Fantagraphics Books.
Gifford, Denis (1990): American animated films: The Age silent film, 18971929. McFarland & Company.
Maltin, Leonard (1987): Of Mice and Magic: A History of American cartoons. Penguin Books.
Solomon Charles (1994): The History of Animation: Enchanted Drawings. Books out of the company.
Patricia Vettel Tom (1996): Felix the cat as Trickster modern. American Art, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring 1996), p. 6487
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Felix chat
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Felix the Cat
Agent Felix the Cat website
The Classic Felix the Cat Golden Drawings on page Age
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2004, Rewind "Felix the Cat" (Referring to the controversy over who created the character.)
Library State of New South Wales, 2005, "Reclaiming Felix the Cat" PDF (768 KB). guide to the exhibition, including many photos.
Felix the Cat
Pat Sullivan, Otto Messmer Joe Don Oriolo Oriolo
Movies and TV
Cartoon Theatre (1919-1936) Felix the Cat (TV series) (1958-1961) Felix the Cat: The Movie (1991) Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat (1995-1997) Baby Felix (2000-2001) Felix the Cat Saves Christmas (2004)
Felix the Cat (1992 video game) Felix the Cat Toolbox
King Features Syndicate comics
The Amazing Spider-Man Apartment 3-G Baby Blues Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Beetle Bailey The Better Half Bizarro Blondie friends of the brilliant minds of Edison Lee Buckles Crankshaft Crock Curtis Dennis Deflocked the Menace Donald Duck Edge City Family Circus Dustin Flash Gordon Felix Cat Winkerbean Grin and Bear It Funky HGAR Horrible Hazel Henry Hi José Carioca Judge Parker Katzenjammer and Lois Mallard Fillmore Kids Lockhorns Mandrake the Magician Mark Trail Marvin Mary Very Mutts Mickey Mouse Mother Goose and Grimm My Cage On the Fastrack The Pajama Journal The Phantom Piranha Club Popeye Prince Valiant Benefits and retail consumers Rex Morgan, MD Rhymes with Orange Safe Havens Sally Forth Sam and Silo Sherman's Lagoon Six Chix shoes Slylock Fox and Comics for Children Tiger Tina Groove Todd the Dinosaur Tundra Zippy Pinhead Grain
Abie the Agent Betty Boop Betty Boop and Felix Boner's Ark Bringing Up Father Buz Sawyer Franklin Etta Kett philosophy Fibbi late grandmother Hejja Happy Hooligan Jungle Jim King of the Royal Canadian Mounted Krazy Kat Little Annie Rooney Jimmy little bit of iodine The Little King Norb The Mister Breger Peter the Tramp Radio Patrol Norm Red Barry Redeye Reg'lar Fellers Rusty Riley Rip Kirby Sam's Strip Secret Agent X-9 Steve Roper and Mike Nomad will make you a chance every time Tim Tyler Triple Take Trudy Tillie the worker Toots and Casper Tumbleweeds
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