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Ethnogenesis and COLLA CULTURAL IDENTITY BETWEEN THE GROUPS OF THE RANGE OF ATACAMA

Museo Regional de Atacama

Copiapo Chile, 2010

ETHNOGENESIS and cultural identity BETWEEN GROUPS COLLA RAL Atacama

Daniel Quiroz [1], and Jeria Yuri [2]

19253 right [called the Indian Act], created by CONADI (National Development Corporation native), recognized in Article One, Chiles nine ethnic groups: Mapuche, Aymara, Rapa Nui, Atacama, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Yamana and Kawashkar.

The presence of collaboration as an ethnic group has become a big surprise, not only ordinary people but also for experts, historians and anthropologists. In the work Scholarship Larrain [1987], the Colla group is not mentioned at all. It does not appear in textbooks miscellaneous school Primary and secondary education.

Data from the first anthropology of the "Colla de Chile" comes from a text that will come from a starting point and based on a funding source, "Professor Paragraph Title State Castilian" (a test grade teacher Spanish), developed by C. Rojas [1976] on a "magical world of collaboration" based primarily on interviews with Ms. Damiana was Jerome. The information provided by Rojas is the first systematic approach to the knowledge of the regional appeal Collas. This text provides, without doubt, a vision exotic strange customs and ceremonies that lead to understanding and enjoyment.

Between 1993 and 1995, DIBAM (Branch libraries, archives and museums) has funded a research project whose objective was to obtain data adaptation sparse populations inhabited ravines, valleys and hollows in the range of Atacama [Castillo, Cervellino and Quiroz 1994, Cervellino, Castillo and Quiroz 1995, and Cervellino Castillo, 1996]. During this project, we have a range of data on construction methods that ethnic groups are experiencing the early Colla Montandon Esteban Ramos, Zoilo Potrerillos Jerome and Peter in the garden of the ravine.

In this research, we realize, through interviews and the use of other [clippings and some "paste text" Information] a reflection on the process of strengthening co ethnic and the table an idea of the "co identity", bearing in mind that we, as instead of different ways, a privileged witness this process.

"Who are the glue?

Web page states that co CONADI "constitute an ethnic group emerged from a mixture of peoples of Bolivia, who took the provinces of northwestern Argentina, and then move across the range of slope between the XV and XVI [CONADI 2001]. According to the data we have no precise figures, however, there are about 1000 people living Colla in different places, mostly urban but also rural areas of the Atacama region. [CONADI 2001].

Defining "Official" Colla includes research conducted in our country today. Most agree that the texts published collaboration called current are descendants of families who migrated from the north-western Argentina in the late twentieth century or the beginning, "a group of families from the areas [Argentina Bethlehem Tinogasta, other] and southern Bolivia, sitting in the garden of the ravine, between El Salvador and Potrerillos mining centers. These are cars with names that are currently over 60 families. "[Cervellino, 2001, cf. Castillo, Cervellino and Quiroz 1994, Cassssigoli & Rodríguez 1995, Manriquez and Martinez 1995, Molina and Correa 1996, 1997, Gahon 2000].

Www.serindigena.cl the website, developed by the Department of Indigenous Cultures of the Division of Crops belonging to the Ministry of Education, I get a "clear" definition of "collaboration" be "

The Colla people in northern Chile, in the washings and ravines of the mountain in the province of Chañaral [Atacama Region], between the towns of Potrerillos, El Salvador, Copiapo, Diego de Almagro. The Kolla happened Chile into two periods: first, the last step of the Tiwanaku Empire in the tenth century, a second migration occurs from northwestern Argentina and coincides with the Pacific War in the late nineteenth century. Most Tinogasta Fiambalá Kolla and came with a high rate of immigration between 1880 and 1890.

At present, the territory inhabited by these people includes the foothills and the Andes and part of the plateau Copiapo Chañaral Andean provinces and in the third region. The most important limitations are the Quebrada de La Encantada, in the north and the Copiapo River in the south, an area with a nomadic environment is at an altitude of 2,000 and 4,000 meters.

Celebrations and rituals take place within the culture, but the marriage only occur between them. The spiritual world is similar to kolla Aymara. Its main ancestral beliefs related to the Pachamama, Mother Earth, who product life and organization of human life. She knows when, how and why things should be. The ceremonies are performed by a yatiri, a person which was chosen by the learned spiritual powers, the yatiri know that this election in a dream, to cure diseases, make calls and ceremonies. The rituals are performed mainly in the hills, in the highest places. The yatiri calls of support and well-being of the community. commemorative dates Kolla are related to agro-cycles that indigenous New Year at the end of June [Ministry of Education, 2001].

This text is a synthesis that represents the result of a decade of ethnic Colla construction.

The first paragraph is a bridge between people now living in the Atacama range, and are trans-Andean migrant descendants who lived over a hundred years in the region, archaeological populations reached thousand years ago. This voucher can not be proved archaeologically, but this process has no value.

In the second paragraph, a territory constant defined with clear boundaries established, a basic question of recognition of ethnic entities that now allows the development of a process claim to territories effectively.

In the third paragraph, a worldview develops in relation with something familiar: the spiritual world Aymara, ignorance of the contribution of mixed European "the only marriages occur between them" for communicate the relationship collaboration with groups and communities so the circle can be closed

We can compare this definition with the one developed for Argentina Collas If we can talk about this]

The special process has been in northwest Argentina that this collaboration Culture is not a purely indigenous race, but a mix that allows situated in the Indian camp, not only for its cultural history, but their inclusion in the national and regional context. Since this early collaboration differ from the rest of the race northwest mixed, mainly in establishing settlements scattered in the region of Puna, the Humahuaca Gorge and part of the Valles Calchaquies.

However, the Collas are bearier True traditional lifestyle Andes, for the maintenance of numerous cultural organizations as the pastor of the height and potatoes and corn farm economy, harvesting of carob and salt, housing, traditional medicine and techniques of prophecy, music instruments Erques, flutes, pinkullo, sikus and boxes, the cult of Mother Earth and a range of beliefs, rituals and social practices of ancestral piety, in short, beyond being appointed by religion Official news, lived with her in a new form that has been redefined as popular piety. [Rumbojujuy 2001].

The research conducted in Argentina are related to different ways of seeing co existence of the group, different playing styles data. According Endep (National Indigenous Pastoral Group) [2000], Collas life in Argentina, "Puno and their descendants, some circuit breakers and all other populations Quechua-Aymara origin "would be about 170,000 people.

On one side we have the research to "see" the necklace as a new ethnic group "Diaguitas synthesis and finally diluted Omaguaca apatam and groups of a Quechua and Aymara in Bolivia" then "the heir ethnic group of the indigenous population of north-west, the mass mixed in urban centers, those who live in the hills [Fried 1971].

On the other hand we have research that calls into question the continuity of the common culture of the Quechua and Aymara cultures Colla and the nature of Andean culture, Europe Junior Profile indigenous mestizos. [Island, 1992, Lozano, 2000].

ETHNOGENESIS COLLA

The word ethnogenesis, like many others used in anthropology and other disciplines, is a Greek term that combines Tenno, which means "the others" the genesis, meaning "development." ethnogenesis term is used, therefore, to discuss the origin of populations, especially those who are different from us [4].

Ethnogenesis can be understood as the slow formation of an autonomous community, like no other, but they are linked Roos 1989]. Training to the people a sense of self-recognition is considered, above all, the basis of this process. This involves a mandatory process of ethnogenesis "ethnic reaffirmation through cultural re-appropriation and reinvention."

Ethnicity, this sense of self-recognition, is the product of intercultural contact, at the same time are the interaction Contact mentioned, by the choice of certain "Emblems Contrast" in front of others [Dietz 1999] As Bourdieu [1991: 231]., Typical of symbolic logic is transformed into absolute differences in all-or-nothing, infinitesimal differences. "Ethnicity is an aspect of social relations between leaders who are regarded as culturally different from other groups and with them, have a minimum of interaction irregular [Eriksen 1993: 12]

The absolute differences and agree on a routine source of identity in order to define an "us" and "other" and promote a process of ethnogenesis, "the issue had already been praxis becomes monotonous now an explicit policy to identity [Dietz 1999]. "It is a cultural identity is through a complex process of ethnogenesis.

Huasos POTRERILLOS CLUB COLLA CULTURAL CENTER

As shown, the co "problem" is an ethnic dimension not a problem in the eighties, the Aymara, Atacama and Collas constitution, as actors with an awareness of ethnic affiliation ethnic, and challenges the society and government, which is a historical innovation [...] [Gundermann 2000]. In the region of Atacama, the word Colla is used to name the people who live in "The Hills", using existing resources and to survive, his knowledge of the flora, Wildlife and roads running through the ranks of the Atacama.

Zoilo Jerome, one of the leaders of the movement for recognition of collaboration as an ethnic group in the nineties, is concerned about one of his points: "It's collages, of course, his mother, with all resources, living like a hill, there you go bases [Jerome Zoilo 1993].

Even the term "living as a" refers a nonspecific way of life reminds us that life is more important than being a co co [We can not avoid mentioning the word collaboration was also used to designate inhabitants Potrerillos a regional context].

At the end of September 1993, his home in Station Montandon, Esteban Ramos told us about Potrerillos:

You know, I do not understand the word collages, which it comes from. Here, the elderly Chileans, Argentines and Bolivians were a group of families were there. Always talk with people, but does not say why. The people in the name of their huasos south "huasos South" and the people in the north, northerners, called Colla. I have always called the people of There the people Potrerillos "glue" if they were born here, but the family is in the south, [Esteban Ramos, 1993]

Esteban Ramos said the north col huasos media are in the south. This statement has more than one meaning. Huasos Potrerillos Club is undoubtedly one of the organization leading communities such as Colla later. The Brothers Solomon and Jerome Zoilo had a major stake in the club:

Solomon The documents were "Collita" corporation, which huasos club and it's the same thing, but we have no corporate documents club, but both are the same people. Solomon and I are involved in the club, this Independence Day, I invited my family and we need to obtain signatures to the document [Esteban Ramos, 1993] Collita

Stephen believes that huaso namesake Colla / games with a similarity of lifestyle, because they share "a country life. "Breeder neck," all elderly farmer had as donkeys, coats, mules, sheep and llamas, horses, Jerome, even if the family, as I said, all animals bovine, except me. Arriero 'father was a pioneer, worked with a car and my mother prepared food for people who have worked with cars. "Mining", then he started working in the mine Chiica Agnes in the gold rush and farmers, planted corn, squash, and all were crushed, " [Stephen Ramos, 1993, Jerome, Peter, 1993]. They also hunted foxes, chinchillas, guanaco and vicuna. Later we will discuss some aspects of lifestyle Colla.

When Zoilo Jerome [1993] defines the term "being a necklace" can not avoid saying "the necklace has a large value, the necklace is "huaso is a trainer of horses and mules, they can not do anything."

The establishment of CEPI (Special Commission on Aboriginal Peoples) under the presidency of Patricio Aylwin [1990-1994] led to the resurgence Aboriginal issues and a discussion of their relevance in the region of Atacama. Thus, the late, within the Club Potrerillos huasos begins to show l'inquiétude des frères Jérôme, ils ont décidé de participer à la Réunion nationale des cultures autochtones, organisé par le CEPI.

This concern has been promoted and induced by the support of many individuals and institutions co interest to highlight the natives and nature such, its inclusion in the Indian Act, which would be enacted, the actions of some local politicians, Senator Ricardo Nunez as noted. In interviews in 1993, still displays the name of the wife of the senator as "instigator" of the co movement while supporting the funding to carry many ceremonies.

This mutual interest, including the Collas and the State of Chile, will be the establishment of "collaborator" of the Indian Act.

For people El Salvador, Mrs. Jerome Damiana is an important figure, known by all. His piety is the thread that correspond to cultural artifacts, which would hardly be other links [Rojas, 1976]. Conversations with Mom Damiana glimpse of the simultaneous existence of ceremonies connected with the Andean world, as shown and "Vilanch (Some common co) [Cervellino 1993, Gahon 2000], and Catholic religious practice as the "Virgen de la Candelaria" Rojas [1976].

From conversations he had with Peter Jerome, brother maternal Damiana, we have data in the context of the validity of the ceremony. For Jerome Peter M., Mrs. Damiana knew ceremonies, the flower of Candlemas, because it was devoted to the saints, we have never been people only believe in the Gospel the saints in our Lord and Lady. When there was a large number of cattle, which have flourished, putting flowers in their ears. I do not know the ceremony to Pachamama Vilanch but I do it, but he was ahead of us, who knows how the old people did that, "[Pedro Jerónimo 1993]. For Pedro ceremony of the Andes " is the elderly is "dedicated to the saints."

Zoilo Jerome tells us that his interest arises twelve years ago, when primary school Potrerillos "do work, competition in the region, linked to the values of the race. Children have been looking for people to support them and I interview, I asked who he was, how was, how it had been opened, which was my food, which was my natural family has money, everything that appears in this research, which won first place. "[Jerome Zoilo, 1993]. To carry out this research right to know" their resources. " The same thing he told the children, said at meetings organized by the indigenous population of CEPI.

The second step was the establishment of the Centre Colla cultural and legal authentication: in Copiapo, we treat the corporation, which are 40 18 years old, but as a race that has more than 100. We have good values, visions, and for these reasons that have to unite and organize, and we can say many things to say what we feel "[Jerome Zoilo 1993].

We held a flower and a mark in the herd in 1992 with the support people and some organizations regional. Zoilo Jerome was the organizer of the ceremonies "are not entirely the sacred acts, in the strength of given things by Nature and God are evaluated, it is time to pay taxes, supply is very common, is in the Scriptures, in all laws nuns are not the tax. In the tithe provides the best animal, moisture from the meat and other parties are afforded. They are more or least, things are looking "[Jerome Zoilo 1993]

In 1995, the Aboriginal community recognizes Potrerillos Colla mainly composed of the family of Jerome-Escalante, whose purpose was "to carry out work covering collective cultural practices co [Cloth 1997]. The same year, the Community Paipote Colla is incorporated in 1996, the Rio Community Jonquera Colla is good. These are the first recorded collaboration communities 19,253 in the law.

The necklace: huasos or gauchos

One of the most interesting questions that always appear in describing ethnic collaboration has to do with relations with groups living in Argentina, which are great.

La Colla, particularly in the field Potrerillos, mostly from northern Argentina: the name of my grandmother was Eudosia Berazay, but can not remember the name of my grandfather, that his name was Ramos, as the father of my name is Jesus Ramos. Everything that comes from the broad spectrum of Fiambalá Tinogasta near Palo Blanco. They came to horse [Esteban Ramos, 1993]. Jerome's family was "of northern Argentina, especially the valleys of Salta and Potrero Great. They came with their animals and even llamas and with them came the little lady Damiana Jerome "[Esteban Ramos 1993]. Zoilo for Jerome [1993], "the values we have are remarkable legacy in Argentina.

Although Jerome Zoilo recognizes that many of the co values are "in" Heritage Argentine "and his grandparents came from Argentina, can make a distinction between" collaboration "and" Cuyo ".

I have many Buddy, for example, Jorquera Arostica and Del Rio have the same story for us, Argentina, but not the "Coya" race, but races are Cuyanas huasos, animal breeders and juveniles, there are people with resources, artisans, and even told me to do some ponchos, they are beautiful [Zoilo Jerome 1993]

He does not see the same "race", but the same things, even things like ponchos are better.

Peter Jerome speaks on frequent trips to Argentina, their families Saujil, Tinogasta, Fiambalá and Palo Blanco, and property that the exchange:

You leave here in the morning and at noon reached Fiambalá. Layer is made of leather, shovels, ointments, menthol, people bought many of them. They also bought shovels Chile, Argentina, because the waves were so bad, that have been used. These things sell and money to buy supplies, which were cheap, sugar, flour, mostly for cooking, also buy clothes, the money was enough. [Peter Jerome, 1993].

Trasandino bonds is a hot topic in conversations about the collabo world.

COMMUNITIES COLLA

After recording Paipote Potrerillos and communities in 1995, also recorded Jonquera River and its tributaries in 1996, Big Pasture and Sinchi Wayra in 1998 [González 2000]. In December 2001, five communities legally registered: Diego de Almagro, Sinchi Wayra, Great Grass of Copiapo and its tributaries Jorquera City:. These communities in three different geographical areas Collas Tierra Amarilla, Copiapo, Diego de Almagro and all were dominated by settlements in urban areas [5]. In 2002, a split in the community of Rio was Jonquera produced and raised two new communities: Wayra Manta Churicay Tujsi and Pasha.

These communities is a major goal, no doubt, "the Recovery of Land and Water "[Fabric 1997], although their stories are different [Cloth, 1997, Gonzalez 1997, 2002].

TEXTS AND BE GLUE

The authors main concern at the phenomenon of ethnicity, stressing the value of written texts ethnogenesis in the human and cultural groups treated differently [Eriksen 1993, Dietz, 1999].

Zoilo When we talked Jerome in 1993 and questioned about texts written in indigenous cultures showed national meeting organized by CEPI, he said "Do not have documents, but with crafts, table top, Marai (in mining, a large ore crushed stone), things iron, but are small, I went to the real [Jerome Zoilo, 1993].

In these four pages of text, Gonzalez first raises the question of cultural continuity. It traces the origin of the Kolla population that "the final phase of the Tiwanaku empire Bolivia, a large Inca Andean civilization "[2000: 1] and describes a series of measures to show that the current co Copiapo are descendants of the house between 1000 and 1100 AD Colla [2000, 1-2]. It also the existence of the collar region, depth and historical place in the eighteenth century [6] (although we all data in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

Second, is anxious to demonstrate their relevance in the neck, the point an ancestor was president of Horseman Labor Union in 1912 which is considered the first organization Colla. It was Santos Gonzalez Vallon [7]. Sinchi Wayra also created the Community consists of the ayllu of Vallon-González Quispe.

Thirdly, he became the Kolla as an object of government Military of Chile between 1973 and like that, "they were stuck in life [...] the military were often around the stove, abusing women like sisters Quispe, who sacrificed his life to provide Pasha [González, 2000: 3].

Fourth, the development of these communities "have always lived in the wild in the Andes and have the socio-economic pressure, the lowest for the colonies or towns [...] Today, our population has gradually recovered from the practice of our culture. The ceremonies, carnivals, rituals, tributes, "sweet table" (a table are presented on the floor as a tribute to Pachamama) and the New Year progressively enrolled in some communities [González, 2000: 4]

According to Gonzalez [2002: 1], the native region co-thirds that are not endangered, they continue their traditions in private, even avoiding their own children will inherit this culture. "Names González idea of the" general assumption "in the text of the signature Kolla Fred Oscar Gonzalez ethnographer [sic]. Kolla Fred Oscar Gonzalez named himself not only as an ethnographer, "but also" the spirit of the Hill "[2000]," The amauta "(someone who teaches children of the nobility).

MARKERS COLLA tribes

La Colla ont mis au point une série ceremonies that act as ethnic markers: the brand, flowers, and Vilanch and others. For example, in the newspaper "The Fourth" from June 28 2002, the following sentence: "Due to the celebration of indigenous peoples

National Day of the peoples of the collaboration is brandings and the flower:

Copiapo. – With the brand and the flower of the flock, a ritual in which animals are decorated with labeled with wool color and ears, the group Colla, who live in the area of the foot of the Andes, held in the park The parapet Indigenous People Day National.

It was a traditional festival full of beautiful colors. Was made by the director general of the city co Rio Jorquera, Jerome Zoilo. First, the leader aa thanked the Pachamama (Mother Earth) and asked for a better year, not only in abundance harvest or increase of animals, but also in the union of all indigenous people, including today Diaguita does not appear as an ethnic group known in the Indian Act.

Later, women with the collaboration of Atacama Yasna Provoste Campillay Governor whose ancestry and Diaguita SEREM (Regional Ministerial Secretary) planning and coordination, Claudio Lopez Klocker, put in a pen could shield up and began the ceremony.

The first ritual is the brand for the animals in the ears to say who is the owner. Whereas the flower is linked to the cycle of animal life in this colorful ornaments are made of wool, and placed in the ears of animals.

This group held a party on the ground Collas where young people can feel in love and find romance.

There was also a tasting traditional dishes such as toast, yerba mate, steaks (quick bread made on a grid) tostada shell, nuts, dried figs and raisins dry. In addition, a craft fair was presented to the public that the presence of Diaguitas who came from the city of El Alto del Carmen has been posted. Some ethnic organizations in Easter Island, Aymara and Mapuche descendants also joined. There were songs and dances that have been held by the public that was in place.

The mayor took the opportunity to confirm the delivery of 8,900 hectares of land next to ethnicity collaboration in the region of Atacama, it allows them to solve the problem of goats during the winter fodder, who have difficulty food. Claudio Lopez added that the land supply in Copiapo, Great Grass Wayra Sichi cities is the recognition of culture and actions Colla integration that the regional government is achieving.

On one occasion, where the community co Copiapo [Paipote Station], won a project Fondart, Vilanch was on or pay inka [8] and also the brand and the flower:

Colla led worship Mother Earth in a chosen people by the ancestors, with traditional costumes and food.

In the area of Bolo, in the Quebrada de Paipote, the community held Colla a ceremony to pay Carnival Inca or Inca, whose goal is to keep their rituals and traditions in the pursuit of well-being of the population, labor and land animals.

The "ceremonial table" was set up during the celebration that began at 00:00 hours. There, the animal chosen by the community was dedicated and sacrificed with the arrival of the new "Sun" and whose heart gave life to the Pacha Mama or mother earth. More Later, the "Flower Carnival" and "brand new animals," these rituals allow, according to their traditions, increasing the number of animals and strengthen.


At that time, Juan Perez Bordones, head of the community,
said that "we as people co are proud to have won a project Fondart because it helps us keep the traditions, the unification different communities and make us the people Colla Also emphasized unity that should exist between the different communities of the Colla region and also stressed the work done by the Ministry Ministry Atacama education and culture of this organization and for the care and supporting tribal peoples. [Mineduc 2002]

These ceremonies are the media through the collar to show the rest of society Regional as a different body.

Glue and land reclamation

Since 1994, a process Transfer of property tax col communities was developed. In 1997, research Tepu Group was commissioned by CONADI do research, which is the first legal action territorial about 50,000 hectares in three Aboriginal communities: Potrerillos Paipote Rio Jorquera and [Molina and Correa, 1995 1996]. After a geodesic has been commissioned to INAS Ltd in 1996. This study provides an area 45,000 hectares available.

In the 2002 transfer of approximately 9,000 hectares are identified, they were divided into 1,279 hectares Diego de Almagro for the Community, 1608 to Sinchi Wayra, Big Pasture communities and the city of Copiapo, and 6108 for the Community of Rio Jorquera.

In the pages of "The Fourth" Santiago, June 18, 2002, emphasis was placed on the delivery of nearly 6,000 acres to the Community Rio Jorquera.

Copiapo -. A meeting was held at the headquarters of the ethnic collaboration in Rio Jorquera. The meeting was informed in the community on general provisions contained in Decree transfer tax, the conditions for the delivery of 6,108 hectares and prohibitions and protections by the Indian Act.

Many of the leaders of institutions related to this subject have been preset at the meeting, led by the Ministry of National Property, Rodrigo Rojas, with thirty members of the ethnic group co Jonquera River, an area where families live about130.

It was reported that the land transfer is done by the community for all cases and what are the hereditary lands with all the rights, Customs and active and passive servitudes, free of mortgages, prohibitions, bans and lawsuits.

According to Management Borders and boundaries, the properties are attached to the legal provisions currently in force in border areas: the community should allow SAG (Agricultural and livestock) and animal health measures and risk areas of the border of Argentina. Similarly, the benefit of the community, possession of the fragility of ecosystems and the vulnerability of dry agroforestry resources, should enable the institutions on the implementation and use appropriate measures for resources.

Shipping prohibits cutting of trees and shrubs, you should also protect fauna in wildlife, such as the vicuna, guanaco, chinchilla, and vizcachas Piuque, among others.

Indigenous lands can not be alienated, seized, taxed or acquired by legal principle, except between communities or indigenous peoples of the same ethnicity. We can not account Given a loan or transferred to others in the use, possession or administration.

Delivered in the files correspondents, they contain all the documents, which are explained on the land transfer. And also some water issues and asked hunting.

The Director General of the Rio Jorquera co thanked the community for the meeting and said he is not involved in a lawsuit against the regional authorities, because they believe they have had good discussions so far have proved more advantageous than an aggressive attitude.

The last sentence uttered by Zoilo Jerome, now in the community of Rio Jonquera is very important because it reflects a division that is happening now between communities Colla

For example, Pablo Escobar Second, also a collaborator "representative of the Aboriginal community Jonquera and the river, tributaries," said that despite the progress that has taken these recent years because of efforts by the leader, the government "anti-Indian" problem persists [Bravo, 2001]

The agreement of the Indian Act, which indicate that when an issue is upon us, must be present at least "a brother of the community," non-compliance "reports. On the other hand, we face constant discrimination of officials [...] the government but from a thousand acres there, just wanting to give 600, and that is enough to suck our livestock is the largest Region III, with forty thousand heads. We must do one layer to another and before long, they will starve. And the hills also, "

As a form of protest has tried to le siège du directeur régional de Copiapo, avec le soutien d'autres organisations autochtones. This attitude is shared by other leaders, Fred and Oscar Gonzalez, who was elected as coordinator of Indian Council Kolla indigenous communities, who in a press conference April 26, 2002 which follows:

I co soy, yo no soy chilena, ya that Tenemos diferentes pensamientos, acciones, ceremonious, y the y hasta que el religiosidad gobierno No our land, never thought of myself as a Chilean [...] It's a joke, because we need to teach line walking coats are ready to [...] extreme measures, because we know they are capable of stopping the regional economic development and to achieve this, the roads are blocked and more. [The Chañarcillo April 27, 2002] who rebel against the state and all the damage we have aboriginal rights in this country. The Atacama April 27, 2002].

The two alignments represent feelings for or against certain departments: Pacho González cons CONADI and promoted by the Ministry Health and education and promoted by Jerome Zoilo CONADI. These two men have caused a rift between the communities, but Perez wants to minimize Bordones:

I understand the measures taken by the education and health support for the rebirth the Colla people. We worked well with them and they encouraged us to move forward and achieve certain goals. There is no discord between communities, but there are debates. With the good participation of communities that demonstrate unity, the reliability between the working communities, carry things, Crafts [Mineduc 2000]

THE PEOPLE COLLA between ethnic groups and aesthetics:

There fifteen years, the Pueblo Colla ritual life centered around the cult of the Virgin (from Candelaria and others whose pictures were placed in ravines, and Paipote). Some people may say this activity is hidden behind the ancient cult to the Pachamama (Mother Earth equivalence / Virgin). Probably something like that exists. Today, the Colla people can see in the world Aymara door "return" with the past and from that point, your "Total" identity is formed. The cult of the Pachamama was considered the best start. And perhaps, therefore, set aside the worship of Virgin discursive terms, but not in practical terms.

Facing the grim prospect locks his home state, people go that they must be different Colla de una manera extrema are obvious. Some of them travel back, looking back, looking at the old, as Jerome, and transform the worship of the Virgin in worship Pachamama. This can be considered as a main room that we might call 'era Colla new "and is present in nine or ten years ago, keeping more" conservative "profile, if that word can be represented accurately. This generates an address that has clearly described as ethics, which he, we are looking for content and ritual in a position to approach the Earth and the development of a new philosophy in harmony with his relationship.

Others opt for a "parody" to an aesthetic orientation. Therefore, the first thing that stands out is the emerging dance Colla and the search for new "Traditional" clothing, Contrary to what people use today Colla. Some of them have blankets and feathers and dance like the "rain dance" a clear recollection of the North American "Wild West". Rio Jorquera women wearing tight long black robe with a scarf. This new "ethnic delivered disagree with what the industry has remained ethnically oriented, and seem to make a difference by trying to maintain and increase the value of tradition. "Clothing floral dress (China), with the straw hat and scarf it was publicly announced by Leonidas Jerome (sister Zoilo): Colla is authentic clothing, and other than the fruit of some people. [9]

After the appearance of differentiation, the ethics of new ritual which had since the arrival of an Inca in Bolivia and the old "coordination" Three Inca Cuestecilla elder in 2002. From this point, we speak of a Colla aymarización progressive rituals and new forms, names of inspiration in Quechua and Aymara. Since 2003, the characters as spiritual leaders in some communities, they were called "yatiris" as is the case Mrs. Jesus Cardozo, Community of the municipality Copiapo, which has already included the figure of Inti, mix it with symbols that use the iconography of western Native American North as major pieces. Most communities have gradually added Collas this trend. Here is increasing interest and need analyze in detail the various ways, aesthetic and ethical alternatives in the process of ethnogenesis (or re-ethnicization) Colla people.

EPILOGUE

Without doubt, this issue has not ended. There are discussions, not only in the Colla people, but also among experts on the past, present and future of the European Colla. It is logical, thinking about the "true history "of the people Colla, as defined in a document that says" this is for the official version of the final report of the Sub-Working Group Colla Pueblo Group work of Indigenous Peoples of the North "of the Commission on the Historical Truth and New Deal (2002):

1. OUR DEFINITION

define us as people of the hills, snow, cold and Puna. We, the indigenous Colla of the Third Region of Chile.

2. Our origin

The Colla people are from that territory, border areas have not been invaded by empire Spanish during the creation of the republics. We have always been a people Andes.

3. Our first

In During our early days we had our own language, which is unknown to us today. In the religious and spiritual issue, the Pachamama role in the energy integration. We believe in the Spirit that guides like the Father Sun and Mother Moon. In our country we have built chapels and markers. We believe in souls and minds. Before any activity we conduct, such as travel or offers are harvesting the light "lamps oil "that use animal fat as fuel. Every 1st November is celebrated "Day of minds and souls." Today is June 21 and celebrate the "Year of Renewal." We have the religious and curing diseases and childbirth. There is a close communication with nature and its forces: stars of the water, animals.

Regarding family, marriage accepted by parents in advance, is made by people belonging to different groups.

One of the principles that determine our behavior and that our ancestors taught us, is what is prohibited to minors and a sacrifice of animals, which were delayed in the process of learning talking. The it was forbidden for pregnant women. When children are born during the baptism, some family members (parents, grandparents, uncles and aunts) a gift usually an animal for cultural, economic and educational. The baptism was to take a bath of water and grass. Moreover, our ancestors had their own games or entertainment such as The Taba, which remains today.

The people in economy Colla the early days was based on livestock, agriculture, mining and international trade. The livestock consisted (llamas, alpacas) and includes the use of health policy. Due to the characteristics of the environment of our earth, which had move with the animals during the winter and summer, and now, and although he received much of the ancient land. There were also sustainable exploitation of wild animals (guanacos, vicuna and chinchilla, for example).

Full use of animals (other than meat, milk, wool and leather) has enabled the development of textiles and saddlery. Agriculture has been the process of cereal cultivation in stone terrace. Mining has operations in copper, silver and sulfur mines on a small scale that allows the goldsmith Colla. In international trade, trade in products made with different Andean countries, which means going to the north of Chile, north-eastern Argentina, and the earth belonging to Peru and Bolivia today.

Or perhaps, may be useful in a few words of Fred Oscar Gonzalez, and are written The report by the Community Paipote Colla:

Today, in the early 21 century, kolla in this community attempts to reassess its cultural context, and this way, the indigenous community has been marked the beginning of what could be called Utopia, returning to its original state environmental perform a different culture as they do not have a heavy load, however, is the only have known [González, 1997].

Or maybe we should consider testimony, although she managed a large number, a child four years in Los Loros town of Tierra Amarilla, located in the valley of Copiapo. This testimony would be used as a conclusion to this unfinished business:

Those who live in the city are Collas and play drums and bass guitar. Cueca dance: someone plays the guitar and dance. The Colla people play low but it is interpreted by children only. The girls can not use it. We also played with stones. This game is to shoot stones, but are not really stones, but the bones of animals such as dinosaurs. The Colla people who weave in kindergarten the teacher taught us to knit. For wool knitting is used for making clothing. It is easier to knit knitting machine, because the knots are made. It is easier to tie a shoe. The fabrics can be put there as a small piece of cloth in the kitchen. I made one for my mother] [Cuevas 2001.

Or ... perhaps because the process is not the last word on this complex ethnogenesis.

REFERENCES

Bourdieu, P.

1991 The Practice Direction:. Madrid, Taurus.

BRAVO, P.

2001 Government, anti-"Indian"? [Http: / / www.puntofinal.cl/010105/nactxt.html]

Cassigoli, R. and A. RODRIGUEZ

1995, a diagnostic study of the population Colla III region. Search Anthropology. Professional on Santiago, and Academy Ltd. Univesidad of Christian humanism, Department of [ms] Anthropology

CASTILLO, G., and D. M. Cervellino QUIROZ

The 1994th Collas, Ghosts of the range: Reports. Support of the Research Fund Style 1993, Santiago Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, pp 32-35.

1994b The Collas, Ghosts of the range. "Contribution Museum regional historical Atacama [Copiapo] 4:

Cervellino, M.

1993, the necklace in the Atacama region. Museums Rites, 15: 4-5.

From 2001 on the pre-Hispanic cultural valley of Copiapo, Chile and northwest http://www.nuevonorte.com/historiales/opinion/cervellino.htm Argentina

Cervellino, M. & G. CASTILLO

1996 Ecology and culture in pastoral communities in the mountains of the region Atacama: The Fellowship of Valerian. Reports Support Fund to research style 1995, Santiago, Chile: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, pp 23-28

Cervellino, M. G. Castillo & D. QUIROZ

1994 residents of the mountain range of Copiapo: sociocultural dimensions of traditional communities Museum. "Contribution regional historical Atacama [Copiapo], 4:

1995 Lords of the Mountain: crianceros and carriers in the region of Atacama. Support Fund Reports Style Research 1994, Santiago de Chile: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana pp 46-52

Cervellino, M. & P. ZEPEDA

1994 Collas, a village of the Salar de Pedernales 4. "Regional contribution Historical Museum Atacama [Copiapo]

COMMISSION The historical truth and new data

2002 Report of the Truth people's historical and Colla New Deal. CVHNT/GTPIN/2002/060 Paper. Copiapo.

CONADI

Colla, 2001 The history of the village. [Http: / / www.conadi.cl ante_colla.htm /].

CUEVAS, P.

2001 Tales and wanderings: stories of children of indigenous peoples of Chile. [Http: / / www.semblanzasvisuales.cl / pags textolibrorelatos.htm /].

Dietz, G.

1999 Ethnicity and Culture in transition: challenges for the theoretical study of new ethnic movements. Anthropologie, 27 [56]: 81-107

Endep

Kolla, 2000]. [Http: / / www.madryn.com / h / Endep / kolla.htm

Eriksen, TH

1993 Ethnicity and nationalism: anthropological perspectives. London: Pluto Press.

Fries, E.

1971 on the hills. América Indígena, XXXI [2], 375-388.

Gahon, A.

Pastors in 2000 Andes Atacama: River Jorquera. Collas Museums, 24: 6-9.

GONZALEZ, O.

1997 Remembrance Aboriginal community Colla Paipote station in the town of Copiapo. Copiapo. Manuscript.

2000 Remembrance indigenous Kolla Copiapo.: Sinchi Wayra Kolla indigenous communities. Copiapo. Manuscript.

Colla 2002, the Indian community in the municipality of Copiapo. Copiapo. Manuscript.

Gundermann, H.

2000 The ethnic organizations and the discourse of identity in Northern Chile, 1980-2000. Atacameño Studies, 19: 75-91.

ISLA, A.

1992, two regions, United Nations Source: between silence and fury. A. Island [ed.] Highland Society and articulation Jujuy: terminal crisis of the United Nations Development Programme Model:. Buenos Aires UBA MLAL.

Larrain, H.

Ethnogéographie 1987:. Santiago Geográfico Militar Instituto

LOZANO, C.

2000 Beyond ideology and theology, social protest, daily life and culture differences Los Andes de Jujuy. Atacameño Studies 19: 157-174]

Manriquez, V. MARTINEZ and JL

A 1995 study Diagnostic Population III Colla region. Santiago ethnohistorical research.: SOUTH Professionals Ltd. and the Academy of the University of Humanism Christian, Department of Anthropology. Manuscript.

MINEDUC

Ser 2001 Kolla. Santiago: Department indigenous cultures of the Division of Culture, Ministry of Education [http://www.serindigena.cl/pueblos/pko_01.htm].

Community 2002 Colla revive their rites and ceremonies]. [Http: / / www2.mineduc.cl/atacama / noticias/Enero/N2002010818112711198.html

MOLINA, R. and Mr. BELT

1995 Report on the profession Communities regional collaboration Rio Jorquera, and Potrerillos Paipote Gorge. Santiago: Tepu Research Group. Manuscript.

1996 Report for the spreading of valley bottoms [meadows, ponds, pastures) by Collas Communities Jorquera and river flows Paipote Poterillos:. Santiago Tepu Research Group. Manuscript.

NARDI, RL J

1979. The Kakan, the Language Diaguitas. Sapiens (Chivilcoy, Argentina) 3 1-33.

ROJAS, C.

1976 The Magical World of the Collas. Paragraph memory for the title of professor of the State in Castilian. La Serena, Universidad de Chile.

Roos, E.

1989 Creation of ethnicity: the process of ethnogenesis: Newbury. Sage Park.

RUMBOJUJUY

2001 The Colla [http://www.rumbojujuy.com.ar/aborigenes.htm].

SERPLAC-ATACAMA

2003 Characterization of Priority Groups in the region Atacama Aboriginal Peoples. [Http: / / Www.serplacatacama.cl / paginas_secundarias grupos_prioritarios_indigenas.htm /]

Williams, R.

1976. Keywords London: Flamingo

[1] Social Anthropology, MA in Archaeology and a PhD in history. Documentation Center of property, DIBAM.

[2] Social Anthropology, Master of Education. Museo Regional de Atacama Copiapo, DIBAM.

[3] E. Chips, a man col Argentina, say that their ancestors had inhabited a vast territory in northwestern Argentina, as before, in the sixteenth century, was inhabited by apatam, and Omaguaca Diaguitas, which when mixed together the people raised Colla [1971: 375-376].

[4] R. Williams [1976: 19] say that ethnicity originally meaning "heathen" in Greek, and is used to describe people who are not Greek.

[5] In the county of Diego de Almagro the jewel in the Diego de Almagro, Potrerillos [now in a process of elimination] Inca peoples de Oro and neighboring ravines, in the province of Tierra Amarilla is the urban population in Tierra Amarilla and cities of Los Loros and rural population of Rio Jorquera, Pulido and neighbors River gorge, in the province of Copiapo Copiapo Paipote population are urban and rural areas in the Hacienda La Puerta, Quebrada de San Miguel, Prairies and Great Bolo [CONADI 2001].

[6] Oscar Gonzalez Pacho support early recordings to date Collas in Chile since 1750, and in Taltal had a name Kakan languague own has existed until the advent of a U.S. mining company http://www.soc.uu.se/mapuche/news/merc020114.html. The language is Kakan, in fact, the language spoken by the Diaguitas (Nardi, 1979).

[7] Gonzalez said that "living around Kollas Potrerillos create a transport union" [2000: 2]

[8] Juan Pérez Bordones Support "What is happening is also called Pachacuti Inca carnival. The guard driving a ceremony to which animals are branded and at the same time, as a tradition and one of them is scarified. The New Year is celebrated with a lamb or coat, Aymara prepared with a name. In this carnival to give up that force to the person who donated the animal. Also during the ceremony, the name of the breeder of the day, you know. The blessing is for the animal, which becomes stronger, there are more animals and especially the owner of the animal. In this carnival we wanted to join all the other populations. Colla population that we are very proud to have won this project Fondart, because they help us to maintain our traditions and unifying the various communities Colla and make us a people "[Department of Education, 2002].

Ago [9] A year later, a leader of the Cultural Center of Copiapo Diaguita requested information to A. Gahon Jeria and Y. Diaguitas on because "we must make certain types Diaguitas "(Jaime Campillay).

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