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Culture of Malta
The temple complex Mnajdra (4 miles-3200 BC)
The first inhabitants of the Maltese Islands are believed to have been proximity Sicani Sicily, who came to the island just before 5000 BC. They grew grain and raised livestock and domestic, according to many other ancient Mediterranean cultures, formed a fertility cult figurines represented in Malta by abnormally high proportions. Pottery from the first days of the civilization of Malta (known as Gar Dalam phase) is similar to examples found in Agrigento, Sicily. These people were replaced, either by, or gave birth to a culture of megalithic builders of temples, monuments whose survivors of Malta and Gozo are considered structures the oldest stone unturned in the world. The temples date 40002500 British Columbia and generally consists of a complex design of clover.
Little is known about the builders of the temple of Malta and Gozo, however there is evidence that their rituals include the slaughter. This culture has disappeared from the Maltese Islands around 2500 BC and was replaced by a new influx of immigrants Bronze Age, a culture that is known to have cremated their dead and slightly megalithic structures called dolmens to Malta.
The development of modern culture in Malta
Section Home: History of Malta
See also: Timeline of Maltese history
Modern culture of Malta has been described as a model of "rich traditions, beliefs and practices "Which is the result of a" long process of adaptation, assimilation and cross-fertilization of beliefs and customs of a conflict from different sources. "He was subjected to the same complex historical processes that gave rise to the linguistic and ethnic diversity that defines who are the people of Malta and Gozo are today.
Maltese culture is so anti-Semitic heritage and American and British European origin is also evident. The European component of America is more evident in Malta because almost continuous modern cultural impact on Malta's past eight centuries and Malta shared religious beliefs, traditions and ceremonies of their neighbors in Sicily and southern Europe.
Sources of influence Semitic
The Phoenicians inhabited the Maltese islands around 700 BC, and made extensive use protected ports. C. In 480 BC, with the rise of Carthage in the western Mediterranean Malta became a Phoenician colony. Phoenician origins have been proposed for the citizens of Malta and customs since 1565. A genetic study by geneticists Spencer Wells and Pierre Zalloua University American University of Beirut showed that over 50% of Y chromosomes of men in Malta may be of Phoenician origin.
Algerian Legend says that the ancestors of Malta today, with the Algerians in the first place, have fled their homeland of Syria, with some choosing to settle Malta and others in North Africa, suggesting that the prototype was the Maltese culture of Aramaic origin. Another tradition suggests that the Maltese are descendants of the tribes of Bethlehem shepherds fled in the face of an advancing enemy, sailed from Jaffa, and settled in Malta. There also some evidence that at least one tribe in North Africa, said the Oulad, the assertion that a common ancestor with Maltese.
This period coincided with the golden age of Arab culture and includes innovations such as the introduction of crop rotation and irrigation systems in Malta and Sicily, and the culture of citrus fruits. Second, the capital Mdina Maleth originally called by the Phoenicians at this time fortified, surrounded by a moat wide and separated from his city's most near Rabat. This period of influence after the Arab conquest of Malta, Sicily and southern Italy by the Fatimids. Today is obvious in the names of several towns and villages of Malta and the Maltese language, genetic descendants of Sicilian-Arab.
It is difficult to draw a continuous line of development culture during this period. One theory proposes that the islands were sparsely populated during the Fatimid regime is based on an appointment in French translation of al-Jabar al Rawd mi'r f-RDI ("The Perfumed Garden Information point). Himyari generally described Al- uninhabited and visited Malta by the Arabs for the sole purpose of collecting honey and trapping fish timber. No reviews for other descriptions are similar and this claim is not universally accepted.
Kufic tombstone of the deceased child Majmuna Thursday, March 21, 1174
200 years after the Norman Count Roger conquered the island, the differences in customs of the inhabitants of Malta were different from those of other parts of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies: moribus of aliis of vivunt of ipsarum homines constitutionibus and insularum d 'nostri Sicily.
The marble tombstone of a Saracen named Young Majmuna (pr. Half Moon), found in a pagan temple in Xewkija Gozo region dates back to 1173. Written Kufic, concludes: "You who read this, we see that the dust covers my eyes, my house and my house, nothing but sorrow and tears, what will be like my resurrection?
The population of Malta at the time amounted to no more than 1,119 homes, 836 of which were described as the Saracens living on the island after the Norman invasion and before his deportation.
Main article: History of the Jews Malta
A number of Jewish families living in Malta almost continuously from about 1500 BC until the Edict of Expulsion 1492, and yet the Knights of Malta in the present. This is another source of influence in Maltese culture Semitic.
According to local legend, the first Jewish residents arrived in Malta around 3,500 years ago, when the tribes of Zebulun and seafood with old Asher Phoenicians in their journey around the Mediterranean. The first evidence of Jewish presence Malta is an inscription in the apse of the church gantija Southern Interior (3600-2500 BC) in Xagra, which states, in the Phoenician alphabet, "For the love of our Father Jahwa." Testimony of a Jewish community in Malta in Roman times, in the form of carved menorahs catacombs in Malta. Members of the Jewish community that Malta is known to have reached the highest ranks of government during the period of Arab occupation, including the rank of vizier. In 1240, according to a report published by Emperor Frederick II, there were 47 Christian and 25 Jewish families in Malta, and Christian and Jewish families in 8200 Gozo.
Unlike of the Jewish experience in the rest of Europe throughout the Middle Ages, Jews generally lived in Malta in the general population and not not in ghettos, are often owners. The Jewish population of Malta had flourished throughout the period of Norman rule, so that one third of the population Malta's old capital, Mdina, was Jewish.
In 1492, in response to the Alhambra Decree Royal Council had argued – unsuccessfully – The expulsion of the Jews dramatically reduce the total population of the island of Malta, Malta and must therefore be treated as a special case of the Spanish Empire. However, the deportation order was signed in Palermo June 18, 1492 giving the Jewish population of Malta and Sicily to three months. Many forced conversions to Catholicism, or exile, he said. Evidence of these conversions may be found in many names of Malta which still survive today, such as family Abela, Ellul, Salamone, Mamo, Cohen, and Azzopardi.
A much smaller Jewish community developed under the rule of the Knights of Malta, but it was mainly of slaves and slave emancipated. Under the control of certain great masters of the Order, the Jews were made to reside in prison in Valletta at night, while the day were free to do business, trade and commerce among the general population.
local place names around the island, such as Bir Meyru (although Meyer), he nien Lhud Garden (The Jew) and al-Muxia (Mosh agricultural) demonstrate the resilience of the Jewish presence in Malta.
Semitic influences on the customs and traditions of Malta continued during the reign of 268 years the Knights of St John of Malta, in part because that trade between North Africa and knights, but especially because of the large number of slaves present in Malta over the centuries 17 and 18, more of 2,000 at one time (about 5 percent of the population of Malta), 40 to 45 per cent were Moors, and the rest of the Turks, Africans and Jews. There were thousands of Jewish slaves in Malta during this time that Malta has been frequently mentioned by the large population of Jewish slaves in literature Jewish time.
The slaves were engaged in various activities, including construction, shipbuilding and transportation noble knights and a sedan chair. They have sometimes been allowed to participate in their offices on their own, including hairdressing, shoemaking and woodcarving, which have been in close contact with the urban population of Malta. Inquisitor Federico Borromeo (juniores) reported in 1653 that:
[Slave] walk the streets of Valletta on the pretext of selling goods, distribution among women and simple-minded people all kinds of superstitions, amulets, remedies for love and other goods, etc..
A large number of slaves converted to Christianity, have been emancipated, and even approved by their employers in Malta, which may be more exposed to the customs of Maltese culture.
Frequent national calamities – including loss of property, forced labor and slavery – suffered by Malta in the ninth century to early 16th century because of piracy and incursions of the islands, mostly in the hands of North African and Turkish pirates Hafsids had a profound effect Maltese culture. These incursions by Muslim Arabs and Turks, of course, ask people to trust the rest of Christian Europe and Humanitarian Aid which contributed to the subsequent decline of the importance of Semitic origins Malta and folk culture and the rise of European influence America on the island. The most recent, and perhaps the most disturbing incidents in 1551 when the Saracens, led by Dragut Reis raided Gozo, taking about a whole population of the island, some 5,000 people, free from slavery, and in 1565, when the Empire Ottoman again, led by Dragut, invaded and laid siege to Malta. Despite the Knights of Malta and eventually won the victory against the Ottoman forces, Victory came at a high cost: one third of the population of Malta, it is said died in combat.
These dramatic incidents remain etched in memory Collective Maltese, and are reflected in some of Malta superstitions, beliefs, sayings and proverbs, including literature in Malta with works such as Inés Antón Farru Manwel Caruana (1889) and the traditional ballad Gharusa l-Mosta, which details the abduction of a young woman from Malta by pirates Turkish. The poem is included in the popular repertoire of wins in Malta.
Sources of Latin European influence
From 218 a. C. to 395 EC Malta was under Roman political control, first as a praetor of Sicily. The islands were eventually elevated to a Roman municipality with the power to control internal issues mint their own money, and send ambassadors to Rome. It during this period that St. Paul was shipwrecked in the Maltese Islands and introduced Christianity. Few archaeological Malta survive today's era Roman, the only exception of the Roman Domus, outside the walls of Mdina. From a cultural standpoint, Roman is characterized by the arrival at Malta a number of senior Roman families, whose descendants are part of the nation today in Malta. These include straw men of the family (The original "Capo di Ferro"), now a leading noble families in Malta.
That the origins of the culture of Malta in the Mediterranean or eastern North Africa, the impact of culture on Punic Malta, believed to have remained long after the constitution of the island to the Roman Republic in 218 a. C.:
… At least during the first centuries of Roman rule, tradition, customs and language, even though the romanization Punic place. This is consistent with what we read in Acts of the Apostles, which call for Malta "barbarians" that uses a language that was neither Greek or Latin, but Punic.
With the division of the Roman Empire in 395 CE, Malta was given to governed the eastern part of Constantinople, and this new Greek colonization presented with Maltese families together, bringing various superstitions, sayings and traditions that exist in today's culture in Malta.
Main article: Religion in Malta
Station 12 in the Via Crucis of the Ta 'Pinu Basilica in Gharb, Gozo
It is said that Malta, Gozo and Comino are over 360 churches, or church per 1,000 inhabitants. The parish church (Malta: "il-Parro" or "il-knisja parrokjali") is the focal point of the architecture and geography each city and town in Malta, and their main source of civic pride. This civic pride is reflected in the spectacular village festas, marking the day the feast of the patron saint of each parish with bands, processions, special masses, fire officers (including fireworks), and other festivities.
Make allowances for a possible break in the appointment of bishops of Malta during the period of the Fatimid conquest, the Church Malta is known today as the only Apostolic See, that Rome itself. According to tradition as it appears in Acts of the Apostles, the Church of Malta was founded by St. Paul in AD 70, after his shipwreck on the islands. The first Christian place of worship in Malta is said to be the cave where northeast of Malta, now known as the Cave of St. Paul, where he was imprisoned the apostle during his stay in Malta. There is evidence of burials Christian rites which took place near the cave, which dates back to the third century.
Another test of Christian beliefs and practices in the period Roman persecution may be found in the catacombs in different parts of Malta, including the Catacombs of St. Paul and St. Agatha catacombs of Rabat, just outside walls of Mdina. The latter, in particular, were very cool between 1200 and 1480, which were disfigured by marauding Turks in 1550s. There are also a number of rock churches, like the cave Mellier, a sanctuary of the Nativity of Our Lady, where according to legend, St. Luke painted a picture of the Virgin. Has been a place of pilgrimage since the Middle Ages.
The writings of the classical historian of Malta, Gian. Francesco Abela account the conversion to Christianity of the people of Malta by the hand of St. Paul. It is suggested that the writings Abela were used by the Knights Malta to show that Malta had been ordained by God as a bulwark of Christian, European civilization against the spread of Mediterranean Islam. "The Aboriginal community welcomed Christian Roger I of Sicily has been further reinforced by immigration from Malta Italy over the centuries 12 and 13.
For centuries, leaders of the Church in Malta is generally by the Diocese of Palermo, with the exception of Charles of Anjou caused the bishops of Malta to be named, and – on rare occasions – Spanish and more Later, the Knights. The connections continued to Malta to Sicily and Italy, and contributed to the 15th century to the 20th century, the dominance of Italian as the main language of culture and learning in Malta. From 1808 to all bishops of Malta are Maltese.
During the periods of Norman and Spanish under the rule of the Knights, Malta became a devout Catholic nation it is today. It should be noted that Maltese Inquisition (more precisely, the Roman Inquisition) had a very long term in Malta after its creation by the Pope in 1530, the last game of Inquisitor Islands in 1798, after the Knights capitulated to the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Under Roger II, King of Sicily, the Christian faith was restored Main Malta
The years following the Norman regime on Malta massive waves of immigration brought to the islands Sicily and mainland Italy, including clergy and notaries. Sicily became the only written language of Malta, as evidenced by legal documents this period, but was eventually replaced by Tuscany, who became the first literary language and the average commercial and legal transactions Malta. Many of Sicily and Italian words have been adopted in the vernacular.
Footprints Arab-Norman architecture still found in the old capital of Malta in Mdina and Vittoriosa, especially in the palaces of the Santa Sofia, Gatto Murina, Falzon Inguanez and families.
The wooden balconies and wrought iron balustrades Valletta
Traces of the supremacy of the Crown of Aragon in the Mediterranean and the Spanish government Malta from 1282 to 1530, are still visible in today's culture in Malta. These include culinary influences, religious and musical. Two examples are the continued importance of the Spanish Guitar (Maltese: il-kitarra Spanjola) in popular music from Malta and closed wooden balconies (in Malta: Gallerij) announced today the grace of traditional houses Malta. It is also possible that the traditional costume of Malta, Faldetta, is a variant Local Spanish mantilla.
The Spanish period also saw the creation of the local nobility, with the creation of the oldest existing title of Malta the Barony of Djar-it-and Bniet Buqana, and many others. Under Spanish rule Malta became a feudal state. From time to time during this period the islands were nominally reported by various positions of Malta, who were mostly illegitimate children Aragon present monarch, however, administration daily in the country is largely in the hands of the local nobility, through their body known as the University.
Some of the main noble families of Malta Inguanez including family, settled in Malta from Spain and Sicily during this time. Other Maltese families of Spanish origin are: Calleja Alagona, Aragón, Abela, Flores, Guzman and Xerri.
The period of Spanish rule over Malta lasted about as long as the period of domination Arabic, however, seems to have had little impact on the language spoken in rural areas of Malta, which remained strongly influenced by Arabic, with Semitic morphemes. This is evident in Caxaro Pietro Il-Cantilena, the oldest known literary text in Maltese, which was written before 1485, at the height of the Spanish era.
Los Caballeros de San Juan
Malta's population has increased considerably during the administration Knights, from 25,000 in 1535 to 40,000 in 1621, more than 54,463 in 1632. This increase is mainly due to immigration from Western Europe, but also for health reasons and the general improvement of living conditions and reduced the incidence of attacks and North Africa pirates Turkey. In 1798, when the Knights of Malta surrendered to forces of Napoleon Bonaparte, the population of Malta had increased to 114,000.
The period of the Knights often known as the Golden Age of Malta, following the architectural and artistic embellishment of the islands by the leaders of their residents, and Because progress overall health, education and prosperity of the local population during this period. Music, literature, theater and visual arts all flourished in Malta during this period also saw the creation and development of many cities of the Renaissance and Baroque and villages, palaces and gardens in Malta, the most notable of which is the capital, Valletta.
The city of Valletta, one of many built and fortified by the Knights of Malta
Contact between Malta and Sicily, many Italian sailors and merchants is busy in Knights Valletta Grand Harbour extended, while at the same time, a significant number of Western European nobles, clerics and government officials has visited Malta during this period. Wealth and influence of the noble families of Malta – many of them trace their origins to the Normans and monarchs Spanish who ruled Malta before the Knights – was also much higher during this period.
Maltese education, in particular, has taken a leap forward in the Knights, with the founding in 1530, the Collegium Melitense precursor to today's university Malta, through the intercession of Pope Clement VIII. Accordingly, the University of Malta is one of the oldest universities in Europe, and the University oldest in the Commonwealth outside the UK. School of Anatomy and Surgery was created by Grand Master Fra Nicholas Cotoner in Sacra Infermeria in Valletta in 1676. Sacra Infermeria himself was known as one of the best and most advanced hospitals in Europe.
Sicily and the peninsula Italian
Located Just 60 miles north of Sicily has provided Malta with an almost constant exchange of knowledge, ideas, customs and beliefs throughout history. Many modern families Maltese origin in various parts of Sicily and southern Italy. Geographical proximity facilitated a considerable amount of intermarriage between migration and trade between the two groups of islands. It is likely that this was also true at the time of Arab rule in Sicily, and has been since the Norman conquest of Sicily in 1060 EC. It is therefore difficult to determine whether some of Semitic influences on Maltese culture have been imported to Malta from North Africa or Sicily.
The influence of culture in Sicily Maltese is vast, and is particularly evident in the local cuisine, with its emphasis on olive oil, pasta, seafood, fruits and vegetables (Especially tomatoes), traditional snacks such as caponata (Maltese: "Kapunata) and rice balls (arancini), special dishes, such as Timbale of rice (in Malta: "Ross-fil forn"), and sweet as the Cassata and Cannoli.
Sicilian influence is also evident in the many superstitions local children in simple lullabies, and devotion to the saints individuals, including Sainte-Agathe. Centuries of dependence on the Diocese Palermo has many religious traditions between Sicily and Malta, including the nursery (in Malta: "il-presepju"), the ritual of visiting several altars of repose, Good Friday (Maltese: "Are sepulkri"), and the graphic realism, the somber Malta traditional religious imagery and sculpture.
Ironically, despite the rapid transformation of Malta in a strategic naval base during the British period, the influence of Italian culture greatly strengthened Malta 19 th century. This was due in part to increased levels of literacy among the Maltese, the greater availability Italian newspapers, and an influx of Italian intellectuals in Malta. Several leaders of the Italian Risorgimento was exiled to Malta by the Bourbons in During this period, Francesco Crispi, and Ruggiero Settimo. Malta also has been the destination of Giuseppe Garibaldi, when he was sentenced to exile, However, this never happened. political writings of Garibaldi and his colleague Giuseppe Mazzini – Malta believed that, at bottom, part of the new nation of Italy – Resonated with many middle and upper class Malta.
French rule in Malta, although brief, left a deep and lasting impression on Maltese culture and society. Several Grand Masters of the Order of Malta was French, and although some French customs and phrases had crept into common usage in Malta as a result (eg, the words "Bonu" with "good day, "and" bonswa "to" "Good night, still in use today), a garrison of Napoleon had a deeper impact in the culture Maltese. Within six days after the capitulation by the Grand Master Hompesch aboard the Orient, Bonaparte had given a constitution in Malta and introduces the concept R-Liberty, Equality, Fraternity in Malta. Slavery was abolished, and the descendants of the Maltese nobility were ordered to burn their patents and other written proof of their pedigrees before tree of liberty which had been hastily constructed in the Plaza de San Jorge, in the heart of Valletta. A teaching school was established, the university system has been extensively revised and a new Civil Code Bill was introduced into the law Malta.
Under the general government Vaubois civil marriages were introduced in Malta, and all non-Maltese clerics and women ordered to leave islands. Wholesale looting gold, silver and precious art of the churches of Malta has continued, and several monasteries were forcibly taken from religious orders. The Maltese were shocked the desecration of their temples. A popular uprising led to the "dismissal" of the citizen, Masson Commander of the French garrison, and the summary execution of a handful of patriots of Malta, led by Dun Mikiel Xerri. With the French blocked behind the walls of Valletta, Malta's National Assembly is formed. Requests were sent to the king of the Two Sicilies, and Lord Nelson asking for your help and support. The French garrison returned to Nelson in the Grand Harbour 5 September 1800.
UK Government from 1800 to 1964, profoundly and permanently changed the language, culture and politics in Malta. Malta's position in the British Empire was the only came not through conquest or colonization, but a voluntary petition of citizens of Malta. Great Britain is an ancient culture in Malta, Christian, strongly influenced by neighboring Italy and Sicily, and faithful to the Roman Catholic Church. Senior Utility Malta Great Britain was excellent natural harbor and strategic location, and for many decades, Malta was essentially a colony of force. "
Malta was an important link in the waterways of Great Britain through the Mediterranean
Throughout the 19th century, Malta has benefited from defense spending has increased in Britain, particularly since the development of shipyards and port facilities. The Crimean War and the Suez Canal opened in Malta even more important as a feeding station and a naval base. Prosperity has led to a dramatic increase population of 114,000 in 1842 to 124,000 in 1851, 140,000 in 1870, and twice that amount in 1914. Malta became increasingly urbanized, with most of the population living in Valletta and the Three Cities. Malta fortunes declined during peacetime in the 20th century and again after the Second World War, leading to massive waves emigration.
Although Malta has remained largely dependent on British military expenditure, successive British governors have made progress medicine, education, industry and agriculture in Malta. The British Heritage in Malta, is evident in the use English now widespread in Malta. Ingles was adopted in Malta on two national languages in 1936, and has now Replaced Italian firm as the main language of higher education, business and commerce in Malta.
The parish church of Santa Maria Assunta (Mosta Dome)
The British period introduces the neo-classical architecture in Malta, evident in several palaces constructed during this period, the Greek Revival portico of the church of Santa Maria Assunta in Mosta, and the tower of the increase of the Anglican Cathedral of St. Paul which, with the vast baroque dome of a nearby Catholic church, dominates the skyline of Valletta.
The neo-Gothic architecture in Mdina
Gothic Revival architecture was also introduced in Malta during this period, in the chapel of Santa Maria Dolorosa in the cemetery Main Malta, and the Iglesia del Carmen in Sliema. Sliema itself, which was developed from a fishing village into a bustling, cosmopolitan city during the British period, once boasted an elegant promenade, which was famous for its Regency architecture, reminiscent of the seaside town Brighton UK.
Impact of the Second World War
Perhaps the indirect result of the devastation suffered by the brutal hands Maltese Benito Mussolini Regia Aeronautica and the Luftwaffe during the Second World War, the United Kingdom replaced neighboring Italy and Sicily as a major source of influence modern culture in Malta. The George Cross was awarded the people of Malta by King George VI of the United Kingdom in a letter dated April 15, 1942 and governor of the island, Lieutenant-General Sir William Dobbie, to "testify to the heroism and dedication of its people suffered during the Great Siege in the first part of the Second World War. La Croix-George est tissé dans le pavillon de Malte et vous pouvez voir où le drapeau est hissé.
The clash of cultures "between the elements pro-British and pro-Italian in Malta has reached its peak in February 1942 when the British Lieutenant Governor General Sir William Dobbie a deportation order of 47 notables from Malta, including Enrico Mizzi, leader of the Nationalist Party, and Sir Arturo Mercieca, Chief Justice of Malta, who were suspected by the colonial authorities Fascist sympathizer with the cause. The exile in Uganda, which lasted until March 8, 1945, was and remains a source of controversy among the Maltese.
Modern British traditions in Malta
British traditions residing in Malta include an efficient civil service, an army that is based on the model British Parliamentary structure Westminster, government structure based on the rule of law and a legal system based on common law. Another British Heritage Malta is very popular annual Christmas pantomime Manoel Theatre. The majority of Maltese families have adopted the turkey and plum pudding and Christmas gifts instead of the more traditional rooster Malta and cassata.
Because Malta is part of the British Empire in the | 19 and 20 century, and a considerable number of marriages took place during this period of time, the existence of surnames British or Irish is becoming more common. Some examples are: Alden Atkins, Crockford, Ferry, Gingell, Hall, Hamilton, Harmsworth, Harwood, Jones, picks, Moore, O'Neill, Sladden, Sixsmith, Smith, Strickland, Turner Warrington Wallbank, and Woods.
The contemporary culture in Malta
Malta has always been a maritime nation, and during For centuries, it was great interaction between the sailors and fishermen and their Maltese counterparts across the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. More importantly, half of the 19th century Malta is already a long history of migration to various places, including Egypt, Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, Cyprus, the Ionian Islands, Greece, Sicily and Lampedusa. Weddings mixed with other nationals (mostly Italian and Sicily) was not uncommon. Migrants regularly return to Malta, bringing with them new customs and traditions that have long been absorbed Maltese culture in general.
The impact of migration in Malta is illustrated by the following statistics: in 1842 the total number of Maltese emigrants is estimated at about 20,000 percent, or 15 of the population of Malta. These figures have increased steadily over the decade from 1800. The Maltese were distributed as follows:
Immigrants in North Africa MALTA
Year – 1842
Year – 1865
Year – 1880
Algeria (Algiers, and Philippeville Bne)
However, these early migration patterns were unstable, and the transfer took place frequently. For example, many Maltese emigrants hurried return their homeland due to an outbreak of plague in Egypt in 1835 and again in 1840 during the Anglo-Egyptian crisis (see:. Straits Convention London) According to Pullicino:
despite a certain amount of isolation must have been a measure of the adaptation of migrants to Malta local customs, food and clothing. In addition, the frequent comings and goings of the Maltese Century 19, which have facilitated the assimilation of the least one bit of folklore material of North Africa that has not yet been identified.
There was a strong migration of Malta in the 20th century and again after the Second World War until the 1980s, but the destinations of their choice during this period tend to be more distant countries, speaking English instead of the traditional Mediterranean coast. Malta more than 10,000 have settled in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and the United States between 1918 and 1920, followed by another 90,000 – or 30 percent of the population of Malta – between 1948 and 1967. In 1996, net emigration from Malta during the 20th century exceeded 120,000, or 33.5% of the population of Malta.
In 1995, an outlet section of the district of Toronto has been named "people of Malta", in recognition the strong community of Malta, which remains to this day. Is believed to be the largest community in Malta in North America.
patterns Migration CONTENTS MALTA (19461996)
Familiarity with the English language to assimilate assisted migrants Maltese in their country adoption, and the frequency of marriages with foreigners is expected to be higher among Maltese emigrants other ethnic communities. many interactions among Maltese migrants in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States, and their families in Malta, the Maltese culture was closer English-speaking world. Many immigrants and second generation Maltese Australians Malta, American and Canadian-Malta-Malta returned to his homeland in the years 1990, and in recent years have seen an increasing number of foreign expatriates moving to Malta, mostly British retirees. This has created an increasingly cosmopolitan cities and villages of Malta.
In the years prior to the Tunis Declaration of Independence in 1956, most of the Maltese community left the country established in Marseille, France, which maintains the largest French community in Malta.
Education is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16 years. While the state provides free education, the Church and the private sector run a number of schools in Malta and Gozo. Most of the salary of teachers in denominational schools is paid by the State. Education in Malta is based on the British model.
Main article: Religion in Malta
Today Malta Constitution guarantees freedom of religion but establishes Roman Catholicism as state religion. Freedom House Report World Factbook that 98 cent of Maltese profess the Catholic religion as religion, making Malta one of the most Catholic countries in the world. However, Sunday Mass attendance census the 2005 report commissioned by the Church in Malta since 2005, only 52.6% of the population served by the religious services regularly.
Main article: Malta
The national language of Malta is Maltese, the only Semitic language in the European Union. The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, but uses the modified diacritical letters are also in Poland as well as letters, which are unique to Malta. Officials English and Maltese. Italian, French and German are also widely spoken and taught in secondary schools Although the latter two are not.
Main article: Communications in Malta
Radio, TV and ease of access to newspapers and magazines foreigners throughout the 20th century and extended to improve the impact of culture on both British and Italian in Malta. Globalization and the use Internet has increased (approximately 78.1% of the population of Malta in September 2005) has a significant effect on the culture of Malta, December 22, 2006, Malta has the fourth highest rate of Internet use worldwide.
Main article: LGBT rights in Malta
Although There is not an official recognition of homosexual unions or civil marriage, Malta, however, has a ban on anti-gay discrimination in employment, and age of consent the same for everyone at age 18. There are a few gay clubs on the island, including "Tom Bar Floriana, which is the oldest gay club in Malta, and "klozet in Paceville. The Malta Gay Rights Movement (MGRM), established in 2001, is a socio-political non-governmental central theme is the challenges and rights of lesbians Malta, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT).
Nightlife in Malta
Long Malta summer nights lend themselves to lively nightlife, is at odds with the traditional conservatism of Malta and the fervent Catholicism of the former generation. Nightclubs and pub crawl – especially in traffic zones Paceville near San Julian, and Buibba – is a rite of passage for teens Malta, young adults and the crowds of tourists. Home late nights and many clubbers continue the festivities into the early hours of the morning. Clubs often large terraces with local and visiting DJs spin a mix of Euro-beat, house, chill-out R & B, hardcore, rock, trance, techno, retro, old school and classic album. Bars, Irish pubs in particular are often the location for the start of an evening.
wine bars are increasingly quiet popular among young professionals and the most demanding tourists, and appear in kantine some of the most picturesque, historic towns and villages, including Valletta and Vittoriosa. Usually offers a mix of national and foreign wines, traditional Maltese food and sometimes entertainment.
Despite tolerance and the growing acceptance of alternative lifestyles, Malta offers residents gays and lesbians and visitors fewer options for destinations nightlife in southern Europe. Except basis of several bars (including Tom and klozet Valletta, Paceville), gay bars in Malta tend to appear migration, and disappear in the summer season to another. However, the local gay population may be very sensitive – and welcome – in the traditional clubs Paceville and elsewhere.
Main article: Transport in Malta and Malta bus
Car ownership Malta is the fourth highest in Europe, given the small size of the islands. As in the records of the movement in the United Kingdom, on the left.
The old buses of Malta, before Franco-British military vehicles are the main mode of transportation Malta National. He was a railroad in the past between Valletta Mtarfa and barracks.
A system of regular ferry links the two main islands of Malta, through the ports of irkewwa Marsamxett and Malta and Gozo Marr. It are also regular ferry services between the port and the neighboring Great Sicily. A cruise terminal has been developed on the side occupied Port of Valletta Grand, however, Malta's main connection with the outside world is his Luqa airport.
Main article: Literature of Malta
The emergence of Maltese literature
The oldest existing text Maltese literature is the poem Pietru Caxaro, Cantilena (about 1470 to 1485) (also known as IL-Qada Xidew), followed by Gian Francesco Bonamico sonnet of praise Nicol Grandmaster Cotoner Mejju bl'Uard GIE, or Zahar (The month of May has arrived, with roses and orange blossoms), circa 1672. The earliest known Maltese dictionary was written by Francois de Vion Thezan Court (Circa 1640). In 1700, an anonymous poet wrote Jaasra seat Mingajr Gozo (Unfortunately Innocent). A translation of Malta, the prayer of the Lord appeared in the work of Johannes Heinrich Lingua examples Maius Punic superstiti Melitensium Hodierna (1718). A collection of sermons such religious Dun Ignacio Saverio Mifsud published between 1739 and 1746, is now considered before the Prose of Malta known. An anonymous poem entitled Fuqek Nitaddet Malta (I talk about you, Malta) was written around 1749, as part of the slave revolt of that year. A few years later, in 1752, a catechism titled Dun Taglim Nisrani ta 'Franisk Wizzino (Teachings of Don Francesco Wizzino Christian) was published in Italian and Maltese. The reason for the Carnival in 1760 saw the publication of a collection burlesque verses under wie Maltija (marriage, in the style of Malta), by Dun Feli Demarco.
A child of Romanticism, Malta Patriot Mikiel Anton Vassalli (17641829) Malta welcomed the emergence of literature as "one of the ancient heritage … the new emerging nation, and this new trend: (1) the assertion of individual and collective identity, and (2) culture and the distribution of means of expression National, as a sacred component in the definition of a country and as the most effective justification for both a community dominated by pretending to be a nation and the fight against foreign sovereigns later.
Between 1798 and 1800, while Malta was under the domination of Napoleonic France, translation of Malta L-tat-tal-Ganja Trijonf Libert (Ode to Win Freedom), by the City of La Coretterie, secretary of the French Government, was published in the occasion of Bastille Day.
The first translation into Maltese of a biblical text, the Gospel of John. was published in 1822 (Trans. UEPP Cannolo Marija), an initiative of the Malta Bible Society. The first newspaper The Jew of Malta l-Arlekkin Kawlata Inglia or Maltija (The Harlequin, or a mixture English and Maltese) appeared in 1839, and was u l-Imabba Fantasija poems (Love and Fantasy) and Sunett (Sonnet).
The first epic poem in Maltese, Il-Ifen Tork (La Caravelle in Turkish), by Giovanni Antonio Vassallo, was published in 1842, followed by one billion rejjef-Malti (Maltese Legends) and AJT rejjef u bil-Malti (Legends and jokes in Malta) in 1861 and 1863, respectively. The same author's first book of history of the Maltese language, entitled Storja ta Malta Biliary Miktuba popluar (People's History of Malta) in 1862.
1863 saw the publication of the first novel in Maltese, Elvira Jew Imabba your Tyrannus (Elvira, or love a tyrant), the author Neapolitan Giuseppe Folliero de Luna. Anton novel Manwel Caruana, Inc. Farru (1889), is inspired by traditional Italian historical novels, as a boyfriend of Manzoni.
The development of Aboriginal art, literary Malta has been historically affected by diglossia. For many centuries, Malta was considered "the language of the kitchen and workshop," while the Italian is language literature, law and commerce. Until the early 20 th century, the vast majority of Maltese literature were written in Italian, although examples exist of tracts Malta in the age 16. In the early history of Malta, diglossia occurs in the co-existence of an ancient language, the Phoenician language and a set of rules, in particular, Latin, Greek, Arabic, Sicilian, French, Spanish and Italian, and from 1800 in English. Today Malta is well covered in English and Romance influences later.
According to Professor Oliver Friggieri:
Maltese writers developed an uninterrupted local "Italian" literary movement that lasted until about four decades ago, while Malta as a literary language began to live together on a large scale in the last decades of the century 19. Although Malta has priority level history of the spoken language, Italian is the priority to medium almost exclusively for writing, socio-cultural, for the longest period. The language has to wait a new mentality which could integrate an unwritten tradition People with a respectable academic writing.
remarkable writers of Malta
Alfons Maria Galea
Dun Karm Psaila
Cassar Pullicino U
Anton Vassalli Mikiel
Guze Cardona "
Notable writers of Maltese origin
The theater is in use for performances in Malta and Gozo range historic structures built specifically for building modern, to adapt the structures behind the historic facades. Receive local artists and foreigners, with a calendar of events, including theater and modern period in the two national languages of music, opera, operetta, dance, concerts and poetry readings. The most notable theaters:
St. James Cavalier Centre for Creativity, Valletta: Built as a platform big gun at the entrance to the fortified town c. 1565, adapted and opened a cultural center September 22, 2000
Hall of the Republic, Valletta: Built as the Sacra Infermeria, the main hospital of the Knights of Malta in 1574, adapted and opened in the center of the Mediterranean multi-purpose Conference February 11, 1979
MITP (Mediterranean Institute Theatre Program), Valletta: Located in the Collegium Melitense, c. 1592
Manoel Theatre, Valletta, Malta National Theatre, which opened January 9, 1732
Salesian Theatre, Sliema: Originally known as name Domus juventute Open in 1908
Astra Theatre, Victoria, Gozo, inaugurated January 20, 1968
Aurora Opera, Victoria, Gozo: Open 1976
Neolithic temple builders a. C. 3800-2500 with many Temples of Malta and Gozo with drawings of the bas-reliefs complex, including recalls spiral the tree of life and animal portraits, painted with red ocher, drawings, ceramics, and an extensive collection of sculptures of human form, in particular, Venus Malta. These can be seen in the temples themselves (in particular, the tombs and temples of Tarxien) and the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta.
The Romans introduced very decorative mosaic floors, marble columns and classical statues, whose remains are beautifully preserved and presented in the Roman Domus, a country house outside the walls of Mdina. The frescoes that decorate the early Christians in the catacombs in Malta showed a propensity for Oriental taste, Byzantine. These flavors continued to inform the efforts of medieval Maltese artists, but they were increasingly influenced by art movements Romanesque and Gothic South. Late 15th century, artists from Malta, like their counterparts in neighboring Sicily fell under the influence of Antonello da Messina School, who brought the ideals of the Renaissance and the concepts of the decorative arts in Malta.
Malta's artistic heritage has flourished under the Knights St. John, who brought Italian and Flemish painters of mannerism to decorate their palaces and churches of these islands, in particular, of Matteo Perez Aleccio, whose works are included in the conference hall and the church of the convent of San Juan, and Filippo Paladini, who was active in Malta from 1590 to 1595. During many years, mannerism and continued to report to the tastes and ideals of local artists in Malta.
Caravaggio's arrival in Malta, who painted at least seven works during his 15-month stay in these islands, most have revolutionized local art. Two of the most remarkable works Caravaggio, The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist and St. Jerome are displayed in the Oratory of St. John Co-Cathedral, Valletta. His legacy is evident in the works of local artists Giulio Cassarino (15821637) and Stefano Erardi (16301716). However, the Baroque movement that followed was to have impact the most durable on the Maltese art and architecture. Inside serious Mannerist St. John's Co-Cathedral was transformed into a masterpiece of baroque painting of famous artist glorious dome Calabrese, Mattia Preti. Preti spent the last 40 years of his life in Malta where he created many of his best works, now exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts in Valletta. During this period, Melchor sculptor Local Gaf (16391667) has emerged as one of the best sculptors of the Roman Baroque school.
Throughout the 18th century Neapolitan Rococo influences emerged in the work of Luca Giordano (16321705) and Francesco Solimena (16571747), and local artists Gio. Nicola Buhagiar (16981752) and Francesco Zahra (17,101,773). Rococo movement was greatly improved from Malta by Antoine de Favray (17061798), who served as court painter of the Pinto Grand Master in 1744.
Neo-classicism made some inroads among the local artists of Malta in the 18th century, but this trend was reversed in the 19 th century, and local authorities of the church – perhaps in an effort to strengthen the state against the Catholic threat of Protestantism in the early days of British rule in Malta – greed encouraged and promoted religious issues adopted by the Nazarene movement artists. Romanticism naturalism led by Giuseppe introduced in Malta by Cal, as the "living" artists of the early 20 th century, including Edward and Robert Caruana Dingli.
The National School of Art was created by Parliament in the 1920s during the reconstruction following the Second War World, the local art scene has been considerably strengthened by the emergence of "Modern Art Group, whose members included Josef Kalley (18981998), Jorge Preca (19091984), Anton Inglott (19151945), Cremona Emvin (19191986), Frank Portelli (b.1922), Antoine Camilleri (b.1922) and Esprit Barthet (b.1919).
Folklore and traditional crafts
Main article: Maltese Folklore
Maltese folklore, traditions and legends still live in the spirit older generations, and these are gradually being examined and categorized, like any other European tradition. A series of national folk festival and International are conducted on an annual basis, some of which are under the sponsorship of the National Folklore Commission and the Ministry Culture and the arts. In particular, each December, the Malta International Folk Festival is held in Valletta, with delegates from countries around the world.
lace Traditional Malta (Malta: bizilla) is lace lace steak variety. Is formed on a pillow stuffed with straw, lace, and often features the Cross of Malta to eight points, but not necessarily. Genoese style foliage is an essential component of traditional designs. Today, Malta Lace is usually worked on ivory linen, although historically it has also worked in black silk or white. It is often used to make tablecloths, table napkins, and regularly in high fashion, and traditional dress of Malta.
lace-making was widespread Malta since the 16th century and was probably introduced into the islands at about the same time in Genoa. Lace has been included with other items on one side or proclamation by the Grand Master Ramon Roccaful Perellos in 1697 designed to curb the use of gold, money, jewelry, cloth of gold, silk and other precious materials.
There was a resurgence of lace around Malta of 1833, was assigned to a certain Lady Hamilton Chichester. Queen Victoria is said to be particularly fond of wearing the lace of Malta. In 1839, Thomas McGill noted in a manual or guide for foreigners visiting Malta, the following:
"Women also make the island an excellent, gloves lace and gloves caused by Malta girls are bought by all ladies who come to the island of orders are often sent to England for them because their beauty and their low cost. "
Malta Lace was introduced at the Great Exhibition held in London in 1881. Lace is taught in business schools for the government of girls, and special courses organized by the Society of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Lace is essentially a cottage industry around Malta and Gozo.
watermark (Malta: filugranu) gold and silver prospered in Malta under the rule of the Knights. This includes gold and silver garlands (Malta: ganutilja) and embroidery (Malta: rakkmu). Watermark elements that are ubiquitous in Malta and jewelry craft centers include pins, pendants, earrings, flowers, fans, butterflies, Jewelbox, thumbnail dgajsas (fishing boats) and karrozzini (horse-drawn taxis), Maltese Cross and dolphins.
Throughout the decade of 1990, organized sports activities in Malta has experienced a renaissance through the creation of a number of facilities sports, including the National Stadium and a basketball pavilion in Ta 'Qali, an athletics stadium and athletics tartan tennis, archery archery, rugby, baseball, softball and basketball in Marsa, the National Swimming Complex at the University of Malta at Tal-Qroqq grounds, inside swimming pool complex in Marsascala, a machining range Bidnija Pool sports complex regional and Gozo and Cottonera Karwija.
In 1993 and 2003, Malta, host of the Games Small States of Europe. Since 1968, Malta has also hosted the annual meeting of the Rolex Middle Sea Race, organized by the Royal Malta Yacht Club. The race consists a 607-mile route that starts and finishes in Malta, through the Strait of Messina and the island of Pantelleria and Lampedusa.
Main article: Football in Malta
"National" sport is football in Malta. Beaucoup Malte avidement suivre les matchs en anglais et en italien. Malta also has its own national team, however, all four World Cup is generally divided loyalties Malta between teams from England and Italy, and a victory by either of these two teams inevitably leads to a spontaneous street party and noisy carcadé around the Maltese archipelago.
Another common sport in Malta is a local variety of bowls or petanque (Malta: boi). In Malta, the game is played on a flat surface covered with coarse sand, with teams of three players. Boi clubs are common in Malta, but also among immigrant communities Maltese in Australia Canada and the United States.
Passion for polo is high in Malta and Gozo during the summer months. Skills in this sport has been the impetus for the founding in 1925, a local Amateur Swimming Association, and the first participation of Malta at the Olympics, Olympiad IX Amsterdam, 1928.
Horse racing has a long tradition in Malta. The popular, bareback horse races held each Saqqajja Hill very encouraged by the Knights of Malta, particularly during the reign of the great masters and Lascaris Castellar Verdalle. The Knights took very seriously Breeds: Bonelli files in a proclamation by the Grand Masters of the era, which threatened to hinder or obstruct anyone caught a horse race forced labor in the galleys of the knights. The tradition was revived and strengthened after the First World War, under the British Governor, Lord Plumer. Marsa racetrack, which was founded in 1868, boasted one of the best tracks in Europe and three miles to a quarter. The first races were held Marsa 12 and 13 April 1869.
Gana (folk music)
History of Malta
Accommodation in Malta
^ Old Temples Foundation Studies (OTSF)
^ Aberystwyth University Wales
^ David Trump et al, Malta before History (2004: Miranda Publishers).
^ Daniel Cilia, "Malta before our era," in Megalithic Temples of Malta. Accessed January 28, 2007.
^ J. Cassar Pullicino, "Determining the Semitic element in Malta Folklore, Folklore Studies in Malta, University Press of Malta (1992), p. 68.
^ Http: / / ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0410/feature2/online_extra.html
^ E. Magri rejjef Missierijietna, Book III: jagmlu Dawk li fid-id-l Dinja, no. 29 (1903), p. 19
^ L. Cutajar, "fuq Garab lX'Igidu Malta Il-Malti (1932), pp 97-8.
^ G. Finotti, The Reggenza Tunisi di Malta (1856), pp 108-9.
Copyright ^ 2002 Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris.
Ibn Abd ^ 'Himyar al-Mun'im al, eds. Isan "Abbs (Beirut, 1975), quoted in JM Brincat, Malta 870-1054: Al-Himyar the account and its implications language, Malta, 2d. rev. ed. (1995)
^ Ab http://www.xewkija.gov.mt/places-of-interest/index.shtml Xewkija Local Council
^ E. Winklemann, Imperil Former Act INED. seculi XIII, XIV and others, tom. I, p. 713 et seq. (1880), Innsbruck, quoted by J. Cassar Pullicino, "to determine the element Semitic in "Maltese Folklore, Folklore Studies in Malta (1992) University Press of Malta, p. 71.
Ab ^ Zarb, Folklore T. an island, PEG Ltd, 1998
^ Http: / / www.heritagemalta.org / hagarqim.html Heritage Malta
^ Godfrey Wettingen
Tayar ^ Ab P'nina Aline: ". The Jews of Malta "Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ E. Ochs and Nantet B., "There are Jews aussi Malta"
Hecht ^ Esther, the Jewish traveler Malta Hadassah magazine. December 2005. Retrieved December 28, 2006.
^ A. Superstitions Bonnici, "Malta in mid-seventeenth century in light of the judgments of Inquisition, "in Melita Historica, vol. 4, No. 3, 1966, pp 156-7.
^ G. Wettingen, cited J. Cassar Pullicino, in "Determining the Semitic element in the folklore of Malta" Folklore Studies in Malta (1992), Malta University Press, pp 71 and 72.
^ See: Turgut Reis. Restocking Gozo later, led by the Knights of Malta between 1565 and 1580, had a lasting impact on culture and history the sister island.
L ^-tal-Mosta Gharusa; Fatt music li gara f'Malta żmien-Tork (trans. "The Maid of Mosta, a story of what happened spent in Malta during the years of Turkish ") AllMalta.com: The House of Maltese Ghana
^ Universit degli Studi di Roma, Italy archeologica Missione a Malta: Rapporto della campagna preliminare 1966, Rome (1967), p. 133.
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=n1TmVvMwmo4C&pg=RA1-PA723&lpg=RA1-PA723&dq=greek+influence+in+malta&source=web&ots=f-XLZw6siG&sig=CVkAaf-Qa3KqVqA8CBJrpS6irQQ&hl=en&ei=nSyeSZbkAtW5twf9kp2SDQ&sa=X&oi ^ = Book_result and resnum = 5 & ct = result of the crew, p. Mack The Cambridge Ancient History, University of Cambridge
^ Agius, Albert Qwiel, Idjomi, Laqmijiet Maltin (Numru jibor Dan il-Kbir FIH ktieb qwiel idjomi ta ta-u. awtur Jagt wkoll tifsiriet kif it laqmijiet BDEW kollettivi that your u-lock taghna iurl ll-ibliet and others)
^ GF Abela, Della Descrittione di Malta (1647) in Malta.
^ A. Luttrell, was made by Christian Malta: From the Middle Ages to 1530, Aldershot, Hants. Varorium Ashgate, 2002.
^ Castillo, Dennis Angel. La Cruz de Malta: A Strategic History of Malta. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313323291. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=i5ns5LNtoiUC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=MALTA+sEMPRONIUS&source=web&ots=JHcfabryVa&sig=cXCtKu3apl5Y2y7OEhaMvt1CMM0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result # PPA25, M1.
^ Http: / / www.hmml.org/centers/malta/class/Class2.htm file
^ Victor Paul Borg, "Architecure", a guide to Malta and Gozo (2001). Seen online 10 February 2007.
^ "BBC: On this day." April 15, 1942. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/15/newsid_3530000/3530301.stm. Accessed May 22, 2007.
^ "Merlin in Malta – The Defenders Return." http://www.merlinsovermalta.com/worldwar2/. Accessed May 22, 2007.
^ Source: Mgr. Philip Calleja, Statistics and history of migration in Malta, Study Session I of the Convention Migrants of Malta (Malta), 1969.
^ Bishop. Philip Calleja, Statistics and history of migration in Malta, Study Session, I Convention on Migrants of Malta (Malta), 1969.
^ J. Cassar Pullicino, "Determining the Semitic element in the folklore of Malta "Studies of Folklore in Malta, University Press of Malta (1992), pp 73-4.
^ Multicultural Canada Project
Source ^: In 1996, CIA World Factbook on Malta page
^ Http: / / www.torontosun.com/News/Columnists/Strobel_Mike/2006/09/23/1883629.html
^ Source: Migration Museum Committee of Malta
International Telecommunication Union ^
Friggieri ^ Ab M. Oliver, "Large trends in literature History of Malta "
Lawrence Attard Bezzina ^ "Maltese and Hebrew: Two Cases of Cultural Survival"
Ab ^ D. Cutajar, "Overview of Art in Malta. "
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